Category Archives: Recruitment

Describing and advertising the job


  • Planning for the process
  • Describing the job
  • Developing a job description
  • A full-time, part-time, permanent, casual or fixed-term employee?
  • Hours of work
  • Place of work
  • Personal attributes
  • Skills and qualifications
  • Workplace character
  • Attracting suitable job applicants

Planning for the process


A mistake as you start your planning can be costly and can undermine the employment relationship that will eventually be established.

  • attracting suitable applicants
  • interviewing
  • choosing the employee
  • documenting and making the offer
  • finalising the agreement
  • commencing the relationship.

You should therefore plan to ensure that:

  • you have a clear idea of all the costs associated with employing someone – take a look at our checklist
  • the genuine requirements and skills needed for the job are identified in advance and communicated clearly to job applicants
  • the privacy and confidentiality of applicants and the process are maintained throughout
  • advertising, selection and hiring decisions are made fairly, and not on unlawful discriminatory grounds
  • communications with applicants are clear, and if there are any areas of uncertainty, you should take time to address and clarify them with the applicants
  • offers of employment are in writing
  • the bargaining surrounding a job offer is fair and complies with the requirements.
  • there is an induction process that gives the employee a fair chance of reaching the expected standard of performance.

Describing the job


The employer is required, as a minimum, to describe the work to be undertaken in their employee’s employment agreement.

However, you are more likely to find the best person if, as you advertise and interview, both you and the applicants have a clear idea of:

  • the job to be done
  • the hours and place of work
  • the personal attributes, skills and qualifications expected
  • the training and development that will be provided.

Equally, before you begin the recruitment process, it is worthwhile considering what flexibility you might have in any of these areas to meet the genuine requirements of a suitable employee who, for example, has a disability or is caring for dependent children or a dependent relative.

If this is the first time you have filled the position, this is the time to consider the needs and shape of your business. If you are replacing an existing employee, it is also worthwhile reviewing the present arrangements and making certain that they still fit your needs.

Questions you can ask yourself about the job:

  • What made you establish the position?
  • Is there a person undertaking the work now? If there is, how would they describe their responsibilities?
  • Do they have all the necessary skills for the job?
  • Are the skills you needed in the past the ones you need to meet the continuing/future needs of your business?
  • Will the person work alone or as part of a team?
  • What are the tasks that have to be undertaken?
  • What are the key competencies for those tasks?
  • Is there specialist equipment or knowledge involved in the tasks?
  • How will the person be supervised, and are there responsibilities for supervising others?
  • Are there additional tasks or competencies that could be required of the employee that should also be explained?
  • Who are your customers, and what are their expectations of your business and this position?
  • Are there any legal requirements for the job?

You don’t need to write any of this down or make it a major exercise, but putting time aside to think it over, and maybe talking things through with someone who understands your needs, can help to clarify your thoughts.

Having answered those questions, you can then bring the answers together to develop a job description, the proposed type and hours of employment and a profile of the type of employee you require.

Developing a job description


A job description should:

  • identify your business and its priorities
  • be written at a level appropriate for the position you are filling
  • clearly identify the core tasks and responsibilities
  • describe the lines of responsibilities of the job – both who the person is responsible to and (if appropriate) who reports to them
  • describe any minimum legal or educational requirements
  • describe ideal personal skills and attributes
  • set out your performance measures for the job.

A full-time, part-time, permanent, casual or fixed-term employee?


Having identified the needs of your business, it is important to be clear, before advertising a position, what is essential to you in the employment arrangements you plan to make and what would be ideal.

Your legal requirements and ability to recruit may be affected by these decisions.

Legal requirements

In the employment agreement you eventually agree with your employee, you must be clear about the arrangements you have made for hours of work, and if, at a later stage, you wish to change those arrangements, it is necessary to do that by agreement with your employee.

Most minimum conditions of employment are consistent across all forms of employment, although there are some other factors to consider:

  • There are additional requirements when entering into a fixed-term agreement. Fixed-term agreements can only be offered where there is a genuine reason for the fixed-term.
  • Many people are referred to as casual employees when they are actually fixed-term or part-time workers. Genuinely casual employees are those who work only intermittently or on an irregular basis, and some different rules may apply.
  • Special provisions for the payment of holiday pay apply for some fixed-term employees and for employees undertaking genuinely casual work. More information about holiday payments for some fixed-term and genuinely casual employees is available on the Department’s website or phone 0800 20 90 20.
  • There are additional requirements if your employee is being employed on a trial or a probation period.


Hours of work


Employees in different industries and types of work have different expectations regarding hours of work.

Your ability to recruit can be improved or undermined by the extent to which your expectations on hours of work reflect practice in your industry.

This is particularly the case where employees have to balance external responsibilities, such as study, childcare or travel, against the needs of the job.

Before advertising and developing a proposed employment agreement, you need to be clear whether the employee is employed to work:

  • set hours daily and/or weekly at an hourly rate
  • on an annual salary reflecting an expectation of hours worked over the year, but not necessarily with set daily hours
  • as required, with or without minimum hours of work
  • on a regular schedule or cycle of hours
  • with a requirement for regular or occasional overtime, either as required by the employer or with agreement between the employer and employee.

The choice you make can also influence where and to whom you advertise the work. For example, employees relying on public transport may not be able to travel easily outside normal business hours and, if work is for short or broken periods of time, local rather than more distant candidates are more likely to be interested.

Place of work


You are required to include details of the place of work in your employment agreement with an employee.

In advertising or offering a job, you should make it clear whether the person will always be working in one place, will be required to work at a set number of places, or will work at different sites on a regular basis.

For some types of work, you might also like to consider whether the employee could undertake some or all of their duties at home if he or she wished – this can sometimes provide flexibility for people with family responsibilities and may make it easier to recruit.

Personal attributes


Having defined the job, you should then describe the personal characteristics you value and what the job requires – sometimes called a “personal profile”. This can often be put quite simply, but must be clear and easily understood. Make sure the characteristics you identify are genuinely required for the job, and that they do not reflect discrimination.

Issues a personal profile can cover are:

  • specific needs of your business, such as the way you require people to relate with other employees and customers
  • the contacts or networks the employee may need to work with
  • language or cultural knowledge
  • fitness or physical requirements
  • prerequisites that may be appropriate, such as previous work experience, literacy levels, computer skills, driver’s licences and recognised qualifications.

As you develop the profile, remember that it should reflect the genuine needs of your business. Setting requirements out of habit (for example, the previous employee had these qualifications so the new employee requires them)

Skills and qualifications

A related but separate issue is the qualifications the job requires and the training you are able or willing to provide for the successful applicant.

Although providing training involves costs for an employer, it can also be an investment that ensures employees can meet the needs of the job and progress over time.

There are a much wider range of qualifications and on- and off-the-job training available than in the past.

If you wish to understand the nature of existing qualifications, or include an appropriate qualification in the personal profile, you can obtain advice from:

  • the relevant Industry Training organisation (ITO)
  • Career services

If you are prepared to provide training towards a qualification for the employee, you should consider whether there are entries or prior learning requirements for that training, and include that information in the personal profile.

Regardless of other skill requirements, you should consider the level of literacy and numeracy required for the job, or for the training you will be requiring the employee to undertake.

Where training is expected to occur on the job, it is important to ensure these requirements are realistic and that you have the time and people to deliver the training.

Alternatively, the costs, availability and ability of an employee to participate in external training need to be fully investigated before commitments are made.

An employer’s failure to provide necessary training could later be used by the employee to respond to criticisms about his or her performance.

Workplace character


Every workplace has a character or style.

When recruiting, you should consider what the character of your workplace is, and whether that character is the best for your business.

It is easy for cultures to develop that are taken for granted, but which aren’t the best for you or a new employee.

The job description and personal profile should reflect the reality of your workplace. When you have designed both, if there is clearly a mismatch, you need to consider whether the job description and the personal profile or the culture should change.

Examples could be:

  • To what extent do teams work as a group or is there a supervisor and the rest do what they are told?
  • What level of formality is expected? Do you operate on a first name basis or is it a hierarchical organisation?
  • Are people expected or encouraged to show initiative, or do you expect them to work by the book?
  • Is it a vibrant exciting workplace where diversity is valued, or are people expected to conform?

No one culture is right or wrong, as long as the culture that is established does not:

  • reduce your ability to recruit eligible workers
  • create an unsafe working environment
  • lead to decisions that discriminate without you being aware of it.

Attracting suitable job applicants


How you attract the best applicants depends on the job, how much money you are able to spend on advertising, and how much time you have.

Options include:

  • considering your existing employees – there may be someone who is ready for a promotion or who wants a new role, and advertising the role internally is a good way to find out
  • engaging a recruitment agency – this can appear costly, but an agency can reduce the amount of time you are required to spend reviewing and short-listing applications, and can help you clarify your needs, appropriate pay levels and levels of experience available and required
  • targeting advertising in industry journals, magazines and websites
  • contacting an industry Training organisation or training establishment that deals with workers in your industry
  • advertising in daily or community newspapers and other media, which can often advise on circulation or audience numbers and strategies for reaching target audiences
  • directly approaching potential applicants, as long as you take care not to encourage an employee to break any employment obligations, including the need to give the correct period of notice.

It is also important to consider whether there are any procedures that must be followed in making a new appointment.


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Posted by on January 19, 2013 in Recruitment


HR Program-Tips for Effective Campus Recruitment

How to design an attractive Campus recruitment program to hire graduate or the post graduate students? Looking for those key factors to be considered before giving your Campus Recruitment program the final shape? Below, I suggest 15 easy steps to design an attractive and effective Campus recruitment program that will make you walk out of the college/university campuses with accepted copies of appointment letters of the desired candidates. Read on and share your points that you may want to add:

Pre recruitment process: There is a great degree of preparedness required to get an effective campus recruitment program grounded, the better the preparation and

  1. Get the business heads to share the number of people required from the campuses as a part of the Management/Graduate training program and identify locations, teams and other details so that the specifications are detailed out
  2. Identify the roles that befits the management /graduate trainees in terms of skills and competencies keeping in mind that most of them will be towards the beginning of the learning curve of their professional journey
  3. Identify internal champions within the organization who will manage this pool of young recruits and familiarize them with the organization. These champions will also act as endorsers for the Campus recruitment program internally and ensure the program is managed well and is a success
  4. Have a designated person/people to interface with the colleges/campuses well in advance to build relationships with key people e,g. placement coordinators, professors, key influencers. Also design a Campus engagement program with the targeted campuses/colleges for higher recall and turnout ratio
  5. It is imperative to define the proposition of the organization that works best in the colleges/campuses.  What is the unique proposition that the organization is offering? Is the role, compensation, career growth opportunities, learning opportunities, off shore assignments, bouquet of attractive propositions? The sharper the proposition is defined, the better it will be to attract and recruit the desired candidates

Recruitment process:

  1. The recruitment process begins the campus calendar. There could be multiple colleges/campuses whose dates could be on the same day hence it is imperative to have a pool of interviewers in advance tagged to different places ,travel scheduled firmed up and logistics in place. Remember, most of the interviewers take this assignment as a call beyond their regular duty hence a smooth experience for them is the HR managers’ responsibility.
  2. It is always preferable to have the information about the other companies visiting the campus that very day so that one has the sense of the competition and that helps to gauge the candidates’ interest levels and preferences. It also helps to modify the recruitment pitch that day to attract the desired profile of candidates
  3. If the Pre placement talks are scheduled on the same day, it is imperative that an alumni from the institute accompanies the pool of interviewers for experience sharing as an ambassador of the organization
  4. The interview process itself makes a lasting impression and is often a factor of consideration amongst the students. The team needs to use wisely use the discretion while choosing the interview pattern, stages, rounds etc. If a group discussion is conducted, the forms, methods, topics etc used are very important factors. Also, it is important to have firm process of shortlisting/rejecting candidates.
  5. Always ensure the closure of the candidates selection right at the campus.  The offers should be rolled out to the selected candidates on the spot. If pre printed appointment letters are handed over to the candidates, it is worth exercising. Getting candidates to accept the offer/appointment letter restricts them to appear for other interview and in more than one ways ensure they have made their final choice and is likely to come on board

Post Recruitment process:

  1. Offer drop outs are a big challenge faced by many organisations as there is a time lag between the offers made at the campus and their possible joining date. Continuous efforts need to be made to ensure the offered candidates are not dropping out.
  2. It is worth the effort to keep candidates engaged with the organization during the post offer period by regularly updating them with Company news, newsletters proactively, a SPOC (Single Point Of Contact) should be identified who can keep interacting with the candidates and keep them interested in their choice of the employer
  3. Closer to the date of joining, proactive communication kit about the logistics and other details should be sent to the candidates. It is a wonderful way to reach out to them with desired information and not wait for the queries to flow in the mail box. It creates a winning impression about the organisations’ readiness to welcome the new joinees
  4. Adequate preparation needs to be undertaken to give the campus/college recruits a delightful first day experience in the organization in the form of a robust On boarding experience.
  5. A great Management/graduate trainee program architecture is mandatory to reap the benefits of a attractive campus recruitment program


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Posted by on January 16, 2013 in Recruitment


Campus placement

Campus placement or campus interview is the program conducted within educational institutes or in a common place to provide jobs to students pursuing or in the stage of completing the programme. In this programme, industries visit the colleges to select students depending on their ability to work, capability, focus and Aim.

Types of campus placement

There are two types of campus placement. They are on-campus and off-campus

On-campus placement

This is the placement program organized only for the students within the educational institute. In most cases student in the final year of a program will participate in this placement program.

Pool Campus

This job placement program is conducted within a group of colleges.

Off campus placement

This job placement program is for students from other institutions. This program will be conducted in a common place (it may be in a college or in some public place) where students from different colleges will

Project Placement

Companies recruit students to do their academic project in the interiors industrial environment.

Student Internship Placement

Companies recruit the students as interns. Internship will be during their student period.


The major objective of campus placement is to identify the talented and qualified professionals before they complete their education. This process reduces the time for an industry to pick the candidates according to their need.


Pre-Placement Talk

A presentation about the company will be made during the pre-placement talk. Basically the presentation includes the information like selection procedure, company’s milestones, organizational achievements, candidate scope of improvement within the organization if selected, salary, employment benefits. Usually this presentation will end up with question and answer session, students given chance to ask questions about company.

Educational qualification

Companies who are interested in campus visit for recruitment purpose will have specific qualification criteria. Qualification criteria include marks or grade range, specific program.

Written Test

Qualified students will undergo a test. This is usually a simple aptitude test but depending on company and the position looking for, the difficulty level of the test may be at the higher side.

Group discussion

Most of the companies will have this round as a filtering round. This round may or may not be conducted.

A common topic is placed before the group and a formal discussion or knowledge sharing is expected by the judge. Purpose of this round is to check communication skills, etiquette of person, listening ability, convincing power, group leadership, leader or follower and many more thing are evaluated on the basis of requirement or the particular intention of organisation or company.

Technical Interview

Based on outcome of above said process, students will further undergo a round called technical round. This round evaluates the technical ability of the student. In most of the cases this will be an individual round but it may be grouped with the formal interview.

Formal interview

Final round of the selection process, where the student’s stability and his confidence level towards the particular work will be evaluated. The interview focusses on overall personality of the candidate.

Post-Placement Talk

Once the student is selected, he will be given an offer letter. Company’s executive may provide guidelines about joining procedure and other prerequisites if needed.


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Posted by on January 16, 2013 in Recruitment


Recruitment Process

Recruitment process


Recruiting the right talent is a vital process in the growth of the company and it is a time consuming process which also involves large financial investment.  To ensure that we recruit the right kind of  people, the process must commence well in time.  Hence forth the following system will be strictly adhered to.


(a) Forecast of Manpower – all Heads of department are to put up a Quarterly forecast of Manpower requirement   to their respective Directors and after getting duly approved , ensure that its reaches HR department of HO atleast 3  months before.


(b) Manpower requisition – every manpower needed to be recruited has to bbe filled up in the manpower requisition form and after getting duly approved by Director , handed over to HR of HO atleast 3 months in advance. All requisition form has to be accompanied by a copy of the job profile of the concerned position. A separate form is to be filled up for every vacancy.


(c)        The HR will collate the entire detail and examine the best method for seeking candidates. Suitable method of collecting data will be decided and advt given / employment agency chosen.


(d)        The CV will be collated and then HR  would commence the weeding out process of unsuitable CVs. HR is to then forward those meeting, the given  “must have qualifications”  to the concerned Departmental Head at the first instant.


(e)        The candidate’s CV must be perused in detail by the departmental Head and if any gaps are found in the information, the clarification should be sought by E Mail keeping HR informed or telephonically.  All such info must be put on record.



(e)        Interview committee – The interview committee will comprise of the following


  • one HR rep
  • Departmental head seeking employee
  • Manager under whom the candidate will be directly employed
  • One technical Manager/ senior Manger is mandatory for all technical position


The committee is to consist of atleast 3 of the 4 indicated above. The HR representative is must.


The Interview 


 The interview will comprise of


  • Filling up of candidate information form
  • IQ and EQ test ( to be formatted by the HR in consultation with HR consultation firm) if required.
  • Any special skill test like typing, shorthand, computer language proficiency.
  • Professional expertise
  • General knowledge


The front desk Executive is to seat the candidate in the reception area / conference hall/ waiting room and get the form filled up.

Thereafter collect a copy of latest resume and form and forward the same to HR.

The HR is to thereafter coordinate the first two tests (these two tests may be avoided for senior position) and thereafter call the candidate before the committee for verbal interaction.


Professional expertise and GK would be checked out during the interview.  Once the interview is completed, the candidate

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Posted by on January 10, 2013 in Recruitment


SOP – Recruitment

Recruitment Process

Standard Operating Process

  1. I.                    Sourcing Process:


Pre-Recruitment formalities


  1. 1.       Manpower Planning & Budgeting. –Organization and Department


  1. Manpower Planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kind of people capable of effectively and efficiently completing those task that are in direct support of the companies mission and strategic goals
  2. Every Department needs to have a Quarterly and Yearly Manpower Planning and Budgeting to have a base outline on the number of staff to be employed with the revenue amount to be invested.
  3. Manpower Planning should be based on the below points
  • Number of additional staff to be hired quarterly
  • Skills of different levels available and required
  • Flexibility in Job handling
  • Achieving equal employment opportunities, improving experience and capabilities for performance with motivation
  • Potential Training needs required.
  1. The Department Manager should get the same approved by the SVP / VP.  SVP / VP should then forward the same to HR in the attached format, so as to plan the annual recruitment.
  1. 2.       Personal Requisition & Position Profile Form:


  1. Using this form, will impact the company’s bottom-line by proactively identifying and filling projected open positions in a timely manner.
  2. The requisition allows you to not only track and report on open and filled positions, but to identify the appropriate resources necessary to fill the positions in the time frames requested.
  1. II.                  Recruitment process


  1. 1.       Application Processing

Complete application material must be sent to HR first in order to:

  1. Obtain and record the original application materials eg. Candidate Information & Resume
  2. Track the hiring process. MIS
  3. Respond to the applicant’s individual inquiries and
  4. Ensure that all applicants are properly notified of the status of the vacancy following the end of a search.

v  Once applications have been recorded they will be sent to the Hiring Managers who have indicated their desire to perform their own screening and interview process.

  1. 2.       Budget Verification Policy
  1. For all positions the salary and fringe benefit funding must be available for the entire fiscal year and on a permanent basis.
  2. Positions will not be posted or advertised until the required funding has been verified.
  1. 3.       Internal Candidates and Internal References
  1. HR will provide appropriate information concerning the job opening to employees wishing to pursue other positions.  This information exchange between Human Resources and a current employee is kept confidential.
  2. Internal candidates must inform their supervisor of their interest in an opening at the time they are selected for an interview.
  3. If selected for the position, the current Reporting Manager of the internal candidate and the future Reporting Manager must develop an effective transition plan keeping in mind the needs of both operations. The plan should be reasonable and mutually agreed upon.
  4. If an employee wishes to refer someone from his friends or other references is welcomed. Remuneration amount
  1. 4.       External Candidates and Interview Process


  1. Based on the Job Description the resumes received from the recruiting agency, referral or other sources to be shortlisted and screened by the HR.
  2. HR would then forward these shortlisted resumes to concerned Hiring Manager for Technical screening.
  3. HR will have a preliminary round of interview.  And then will forward for a technical round of interview. There could be one to three rounds of Technical Interviews if required.
  4. If the candidate is suitable for the required profile, the Hiring Manager should intimate HR for further discussions.
    1. Reference checks are mandatory for all the level of hiring except for freshers. This will be done through email or phone. The outcome will be captured and attached to the incumbent’s personal file. No offer will be given without a reference check.
    2. The Selected Candidate will be made an offer with a detailed annexure of the credentials to be carried on joining.
    3. Appointment Letter to be issued on joining, only on receipt of all credentials with the CTC Break-up.

Points to be remembered

  1. Internal candidates or others personally known to the interview panel must be treated in exactly the same way as all other candidates.
  2. Additional guidance on the procedures to be followed in the recruitment of a typical and casual staff is provided separately.
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Posted by on January 5, 2013 in Recruitment, SOP


Things to Remember During Job Recruitment


Remember that the foundation of an effective job posting includes an accurate job description and complete understanding of the hiring manager’s staffing needs. Therefore, before you post a job vacancy, review the job requirements with the hiring manager. Learn what the hiring manager wants in terms of functional expertise, core competencies and professional traits. Also, ask the hiring manager about staffing projections to determine how many job openings you need to fill.

Interview Guide

Outside of HR staff, many hiring managers and staff aren’t comfortable with interviewing because they don’t have occasion to conduct many interviews during their careers. As a recruiter or employment specialist, be mindful of their relative inexperience and lack of knowledge concerning interviews. Prepare an interview guide for new supervisors and managers who aren’t familiar with the hiring process. It will streamline the interview and selection process and improve the efficiency of HR functions related to new-hire activities.

Sales Job

Two important factors about recruiting are that you’re a salesperson for the organization and that your personality matters. Your job is to sell candidates on the benefits of working for your company. Therefore, when you post job vacancies, highlight the advantages of the job — health benefits, competitive pay, flexible work schedules, incentives and bonuses. Keep in mind that other companies use the same sales tactic to attract qualified applicants, so create a job posting that convinces the applicant to apply for a job with your organization. In addition, establishing a connection with applicants may very well help your organization in the long run.


Recent graduates comprise a talent pool waiting for the opportunity to embark upon a professional career. Organize college and university recruiting events to tap this market. Consider providing internship and mentoring opportunities to students and young professionals as a way to start their career development. Remember to contact professional associations that have student members ready to enter the workforce. Your organization stands to benefit from the enthusiastic and eager approach of students when they connect with an organization that will support their development.

Passive Candidates

Remember that job descriptions don’t always work with passive candidates, although passive candidates generally want to know enough about the job before they’ll spend time talking to you. Passive candidates are a goldmine your organization can’t afford to pass up. However, your approach with passive candidates has to be measured and strategic. Convincing someone who already has a job to consider exploring opportunities with your organization will require a little more effort and a persuasive approach.



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Posted by on January 2, 2013 in Recruitment




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Posted by on December 24, 2012 in Letters, Recruitment





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Posted by on December 24, 2012 in emails, Joining Formalities


Oracle Interview Questions

1. What are the components of physical database structure of Oracle database?

Oracle database is comprised of three types of files. One or more datafiles, two are more redo log files, and one or more control files.


2. What are the components of logical database structure of Oracle database?

There are tablespaces and database’s schema objects.


3. What is a tablespace?

A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespaces. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together.


4. What is SYSTEM tablespace and when is it created?

Every Oracle database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM, which is automatically created when the database is created. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database.


5. Explain the relationship among database, tablespace and data file.

Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces one or more data files are explicitly created for each tablespace.


6. What is schema?

A schema is collection of database objects of a user.


7. What are Schema Objects?

Schema objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the database’s data. Schema objects include tables, views, sequences, synonyms, indexes, clusters, database triggers, procedures, functions packages and database links.


8. Can objects of the same schema reside in different tablespaces?



9. Can a tablespace hold objects from different schemes?



10. What is Oracle table?

A table is the basic unit of data storage in an Oracle database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns.


11. What is an Oracle view?

A view is a virtual table. Every view has a query attached to it. (The query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.)


11. What is Partial Backup ?

A Partial Backup is any operating system backup short of a full backup, taken while the database is open or shut down.


12. What is Mirrored on-line Redo Log ?

A mirrored on-line redo log consists of copies of on-line redo log files physically located on separate disks, changes made to one member of the group are made to all members.


13. What is Full Backup ?

A full backup is an operating system backup of all data files, on-line redo log files and control file that constitute ORACLE database and the parameter.


14. Can a View based on another View ?




15. Can a Tablespace hold objects from different Schemes ?



16. Can objects of the same Schema reside in different tablespaces.?



17. What is the use of Control File ?

When an instance of an ORACLE database is started, its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. It is also used in database recovery.


18. Do View contain Data ?

Views do not contain or store data.


19. What are the Referential actions supported by FOREIGN KEY integrity constraint ?

UPDATE and DELETE Restrict – A referential integrity rule that disallows the update or deletion of referenced data. DELETE Cascade – When a referenced row is deleted all associated dependent rows are deleted.


20. What are the type of Synonyms?

There are two types of Synonyms Private and Public.


21. What is a Redo Log ?

The set of Redo Log files YSDATE,UID,USER or USERENV SQL functions, or the pseudo columns LEVEL or ROWNUM.


22. What is an Index Segment ?

Each Index has an Index segment that stores all of its data.


23. Explain the relationship among Database, Tablespace and Data file.?

Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces one or more data files are explicitly created for each tablespace


24. What are the different type of Segments ?

Data Segment, Index Segment, Rollback Segment and Temporary Segment.


25. What are Clusters ?

Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together.


26. What is an Integrity Constrains ?

An integrity constraint is a declarative way to define a business rule for a column of a table.


27. What is an Index ?

An Index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows, which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or more columns of a table.


28. What is an Extent ?

An Extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks, obtained in a single allocation, and used to store a specific type of information.


29. What is a View ?

A view is a virtual table. Every view has a Query attached to it. (The Query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.)


30. What is Table ?

A table is the basic unit of data storage in an ORACLE database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns.


31. Can a view based on another view?



32. What are the advantages of views?

– Provide an additional level of table security, by restricting access to a predetermined set of rows and columns of a table.
– Hide data complexity.
– Simplify commands for the user.
– Present the data in a different perspective from that of the base table.
– Store complex queries.


33. What is an Oracle sequence?

A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database’s tables.


34. What is a synonym?

A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit.


35. What are the types of synonyms?

There are two types of synonyms private and public.


36. What is a private synonym?

Only its owner can access a private synonym.


37. What is a public synonym?

Any database user can access a public synonym.


38. What are synonyms used for?

– Mask the real name and owner of an object.
– Provide public access to an object
– Provide location transparency for tables, views or program units of a remote database.
– Simplify the SQL statements for database users.


39. What is an Oracle index?

An index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows, which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or more columns of a table.


40. How are the index updates?

Indexes are automatically maintained and used by Oracle. Changes to table data are automatically incorporated into all relevant indexes.


41. What is a Tablespace?

A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespaces. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together


42. What is Rollback Segment ?

A Database contains one or more Rollback Segments to temporarily store “undo” information.


43. What are the Characteristics of Data Files ?

A data file can be associated with only one database. Once created a data file can’t change size. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace.


44. How to define Data Block size ?

A data block size is specified for each ORACLE database when the database is created. A database users and allocated free database space in ORACLE datablocks. Block size is specified in INIT.ORA file and can’t be changed latter.


45. What does a Control file Contain ?

A Control file records the physical structure of the database. It contains the following information.
Database Name
Names and locations of a database’s files and redolog files.
Time stamp of database creation.


46.What is difference between UNIQUE constraint and PRIMARY KEY constraint ?

A column defined as UNIQUE can contain Nulls while a column defined as PRIMARY KEY can’t contain Nulls.


47.What is Index Cluster ?

A Cluster with an index on the Cluster Key


48.When does a Transaction end ?

When it is committed or Rollbacked.


49. What is the effect of setting the value “ALL_ROWS” for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command ? What are the factors that affect OPTIMIZER in choosing an Optimization approach ?

Answer The OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter Statistics in the Data Dictionary the OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION command hints in the statement.


50. What is the effect of setting the value “CHOOSE” for OPTIMIZER_GOAL, parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ?

The Optimizer chooses Cost_based approach and optimizes with the goal of best throughput if statistics for atleast one of the tables accessed by the SQL statement exist in the data dictionary. Otherwise the OPTIMIZER chooses RULE_based approach.


51. How does one create a new database? (for DBA)

One can create and modify Oracle databases using the Oracle “dbca” (Database Configuration Assistant) utility. The dbca utility is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. The Oracle Universal Installer (oui) normally starts it after installing the database server software.
One can also create databases manually using scripts. This option, however, is falling out of fashion, as it is quite involved and error prone. Look at this example for creating and Oracle 9i database:


52. What database block size should I use? (for DBA)

Oracle recommends that your database block size match, or be multiples of your operating system block size. One can use smaller block sizes, but the performance cost is significant. Your choice should depend on the type of application you are running. If you have many small transactions as with OLTP, use a smaller block size. With fewer but larger transactions, as with a DSS application, use a larger block size. If you are using a volume manager, consider your “operating system block size” to be 8K. This is because volume manager products use 8K blocks (and this is not configurable).


53. What are the different approaches used by Optimizer in choosing an execution plan ?

Rule-based and Cost-based.


54. What does ROLLBACK do ?

ROLLBACK retracts any of the changes resulting from the SQL statements in the transaction.


How does one coalesce free space?(for DBA)

SMON coalesces free space (extents) into larger, contiguous extents every 2 hours and even then, only for a short period of time.
SMON will not coalesce free space if a tablespace’s default storage parameter “pctincrease” is set to 0. With Oracle 7.3 one can manually coalesce a tablespace using the ALTER TABLESPACE … COALESCE; command, until then use:
SQL> alter session set events ‘immediate trace name coalesce level n’;
Where ‘n’ is the tablespace number you get from SELECT TS#, NAME FROM SYS.TS$;
You can get status information about this process by selecting from the SYS.DBA_FREE_SPACE_COALESCED dictionary view.


55. How does one prevent tablespace fragmentation? (for DBA)

Always set PCTINCREASE to 0 or 100.
Bizarre values for PCTINCREASE will contribute to fragmentation. For example if you set PCTINCREASE to 1 you will see that your extents are going to have weird and wacky sizes: 100K, 100K, 101K, 102K, etc. Such extents of bizarre size are rarely re-used in their entirety. PCTINCREASE of 0 or 100 gives you nice round extent sizes that can easily be reused. Eg. 100K, 100K, 200K, 400K, etc.
Thiru Vadivelu contributed the following:
Use the same extent size for all the segments in a given tablespace. Locally Managed tablespaces (available from 8i onwards) with uniform extent sizes virtually eliminates any tablespace fragmentation. Note that the number of extents per segment does not cause any performance issue anymore, unless they run into thousands and thousands where additional I/O may be required to fetch the additional blocks where extent maps of the segment are stored.


56. Where can one find the high water mark for a table? (for DBA)

There is no single system table, which contains the high water mark (HWM) for a table. A table’s HWM can be calculated using the results from the following SQL statements:
Thus, the tables’ HWM = (query result 1) – (query result 2) – 1
NOTE: You can also use the DBMS_SPACE package and calculate the HWM = TOTAL_BLOCKS – UNUSED_BLOCKS – 1.


57. What is COST-based approach to optimization ?

Considering available access paths and determining the most efficient execution plan based on statistics in the data dictionary for the tables accessed by the statement and their associated clusters and indexes.


58. What does COMMIT do ?

COMMIT makes permanent the changes resulting from all SQL statements in the transaction. The changes made by the SQL statements of a transaction become visible to other user sessions transactions that start only after transaction is committed.


59. How are extents allocated to a segment? (for DBA)

Oracle8 and above rounds off extents to a multiple of 5 blocks when more than 5 blocks are requested. If one requests 16K or 2 blocks (assuming a 8K block size), Oracle doesn’t round it up to 5 blocks, but it allocates 2 blocks or 16K as requested. If one asks for 8 blocks, Oracle will round it up to 10 blocks.
Space allocation also depends upon the size of contiguous free space available. If one asks for 8 blocks and Oracle finds a contiguous free space that is exactly 8 blocks, it would give it you. If it were 9 blocks, Oracle would also give it to you. Clearly Oracle doesn’t always round extents to a multiple of 5 blocks.
The exception to this rule is locally managed tablespaces. If a tablespace is created with local extent management and the extent size is 64K, then Oracle allocates 64K or 8 blocks assuming 8K-block size. Oracle doesn’t round it up to the multiple of 5 when a tablespace is locally managed.


60. Can one rename a database user (schema)? (for DBA)

No, this is listed as Enhancement Request 158508. Workaround:
Do a user-level export of user A
create new user B
Import system/manager fromuser=A touser=B
Drop user A


61. Define Transaction ?

A Transaction is a logical unit of work that comprises one or more SQL statements executed by a single user.


62. What is Read-Only Transaction ?

A Read-Only transaction ensures that the results of each query executed in the transaction are consistant with respect to the same point in time.


63. What is a deadlock ? Explain .

Two processes wating to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper row lock commands. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically.
These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally.


64. What is a Schema ?

The set of objects owned by user account is called the schema.


65. What is a cluster Key ?

The related columns of the tables are called the cluster key. The cluster key is indexed using a cluster index and its value is stored only once for multiple tables in the cluster.


66. What is Parallel Server ?

Multiple instances accessing the same database (Only In Multi-CPU environments)


67. What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database ?

It consists of
one or more data files.
one or more control files.
two or more redo log files.
The Database contains
multiple users/schemas
one or more rollback segments
one or more tablespaces
Data dictionary tables
User objects (table,indexes,views etc.,)
The server that access the database consists of
SGA (Database buffer, Dictionary Cache Buffers, Redo log buffers, Shared SQL pool)
SMON (System MONito)
PMON (Process MONitor)
LGWR (LoG Write)
DBWR (Data Base Write)
CKPT (Check Point)
User Process with associated PGS


68. What is clusters ?

Group of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called Cluster.


69. What is an Index ? How it is implemented in Oracle Database ?

An index is a database structure used by the server to have direct access of a row in a table. An index is automatically created when a unique of primary key constraint clause is specified in create table comman (Ver 7.0)


70. What is a Database instance ? Explain

A database instance (Server) is a set of memory structure and background processes that access a set of database files.
The process can be shared by all users. The memory structure that are used to store most queried data from database. This helps up to improve database performance by decreasing the amount of I/O performed against data file.


71. WWhat is the use of ANALYZE command ?

To perform one of these function on an index,table, or cluster:
– To collect statistics about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary.
– To delete statistics about the object used by object from the data dictionary.
– To validate the structure of the object.
– To identify migrated and chained rows of the table or cluster.


72. What is default tablespace ?

The Tablespace to contain schema objects created without specifying a tablespace name.


73. What are the system resources that can be controlled through Profile ?

The number of concurrent sessions the user can establish the CPU processing time available to the user’s session the CPU processing time available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the amount of logical I/O available to the user’s session the amout of logical I/O available to a single call to ORACLE made by a SQL statement the allowed amount of idle time for the user’s session the allowed amount of connect time for the user’s session.


74. What is Tablespace Quota ?

The collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema on a particular tablespace.


76. What are the different Levels of Auditing ?

Statement Auditing, Privilege Auditing and Object Auditing.


77. What is Statement Auditing ?

Statement auditing is the auditing of the powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects


78. What are the database administrators utilities avaliable ?

SQL * DBA – This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database. SQL * Loader – It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables. Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database.


79. How can you enable automatic archiving ?

Shut the database
Backup the database
Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora file.
Start up the database.


80. What are roles? How can we implement roles ?

Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users. Creating roles and assigning provides to roles. Assign each role to group of users. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users.


81. What are Roles ?

Roles are named groups of related privileges that are granted to users or other roles.


82. What are the use of Roles ?

REDUCED GRANTING OF PRIVILEGES – Rather than explicitly granting the same set of privileges to many users a database administrator can grant the privileges for a group of related users granted to a role and then grant only the role to each member of the group.
DYNAMIC PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT – When the privileges of a group must change, only the privileges of the role need to be modified. The security domains of all users granted the group’s role automatically reflect the changes made to the role.
SELECTIVE AVAILABILITY OF PRIVILEGES – The roles granted to a user can be selectively enable (available for use) or disabled (not available for use). This allows specific control of a user’s privileges in any given situation.
APPLICATION AWARENESS – A database application can be designed to automatically enable and disable selective roles when a user attempts to use the application.


83. What is Privilege Auditing ?

Privilege auditing is the auditing of the use of powerful system privileges without regard to specifically named objects.


84. What is Object Auditing ?

Object auditing is the auditing of accesses to specific schema objects without regard to user.


85. What is Auditing ?

Monitoring of user access to aid in the investigation of database use.


85. How does one see the uptime for a database? (for DBA

Look at the following SQL query:
SELECT to_char (startup_time,’DD-MON-YYYY HH24: MI: SS’) “DB Startup Time”
FROM sys.v_$instance;
Marco Bergman provided the following alternative solution:
SELECT to_char (logon_time,’Dy dd Mon HH24: MI: SS’) “DB Startup Time”
FROM sys.v_$session
WHERE Sid=1 /* this is pmon */
Users still running on Oracle 7 can try one of the following queries:
Column STARTED format a18 head ‘STARTUP TIME’
to_date (JUL.VALUE, ‘J’)
|| to_char (floor (SEC.VALUE/3600), ’09’)
|| ‘:’
— || Substr (to_char (mod (SEC.VALUE/60, 60), ’09’), 2, 2)
|| Substr (to_char (floor (mod (SEC.VALUE/60, 60)), ’09’), 2, 2)
|| ‘.’
|| Substr (to_char (mod (SEC.VALUE, 60), ’09’), 2, 2) STARTED
Where JUL.KEY like ‘%JULIAN%’
and SEC.KEY like ‘%SECOND%’;
Select to_date (JUL.VALUE, ‘J’)
|| to_char (to_date (SEC.VALUE, ‘SSSSS’), ‘ HH24:MI:SS’) STARTED
where JUL.KEY like ‘%JULIAN%’
and SEC.KEY like ‘%SECOND%’;
select to_char (to_date (JUL.VALUE, ‘J’) + (SEC.VALUE/86400), -Return a DATE
where JUL.KEY like ‘%JULIAN%’
and SEC.KEY like ‘%SECOND%’;


86. Where are my TEMPFILES, I don’t see them in V$DATAFILE or DBA_DATA_FILE? (for DBA

Tempfiles, unlike normal datafiles, are not listed in v$datafile or dba_data_files. Instead query v$tempfile or dba_temp_files:
SELECT * FROM v$tempfile;
SELECT * FROM dba_temp_files;


87. How do I find used/free space in a TEMPORARY tablespace? (for DBA

Unlike normal tablespaces, true temporary tablespace information is not listed in DBA_FREE_SPACE. Instead use the V$TEMP_SPACE_HEADER view:
SELECT tablespace_name, SUM (bytes used), SUM (bytes free)
FROM V$temp_space_header
GROUP BY tablespace_name;


88. What is a profile ?

Each database user is assigned a Profile that specifies limitations on various system resources available to the user.


89. How will you enforce security using stored procedures?

Don’t grant user access directly to tables within the application. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables. When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure.


90. How can one see who is using a temporary segment? (for DBA

For every user using temporary space, there is an entry in SYS.V$_LOCK with type ‘TS’.
All temporary segments are named ‘ffff.bbbb’ where ‘ffff’ is the file it is in and ‘bbbb’ is first block of the segment. If your temporary tablespace is set to TEMPORARY, all sorts are done in one large temporary segment. For usage stats, see SYS.V_$SORT_SEGMENT
From Oracle 8.0, one can just query SYS.v$sort_usage. Look at these examples:
select s.username, u.”USER”, u.tablespace, u.contents, u.extents, u.blocks
from sys.v_$session s, sys.v_$sort_usage u
where s.addr = u.session_addr
select s.osuser, s.process, s.username, s.serial#,
Sum (u.blocks)*vp.value/1024 sort_size
from sys.v_$session s, sys.v_$sort_usage u, sys.v_$parameter VP
where s.saddr = u.session_addr
and = ‘db_block_size’
and s.osuser like ‘&1’
group by s.osuser, s.process, s.username, s.serial#, vp.value


91. How does one get the view definition of fixed views/tables?

Query v$fixed_view_definition. Example: SELECT * FROM v$fixed_view_definition WHERE view_name=’V$SESSION’;


92. What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database spaces ?



93. How can we specify the Archived log file name format and destination?

By setting the following values in init.ora file. LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S – Log sequence number and is zero left paded, %s – Log sequence number not padded. %T – Thread number lef-zero-paded and %t – Thread number not padded). The file name created is arch 0001 are if %S is used. LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = path.


94. What is user Account in Oracle database?

An user account is not a physical structure in Database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges.


95. When will the data in the snapshot log be used?

We must be able to create a after row trigger on table (i.e., it should be not be already available) After giving table privileges. We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle uses the name of the master table in the name of the database objects that support its snapshot log. The master table name should be less than or equal to 23 characters. (The table name created will be MLOGS_tablename, and trigger name will be TLOGS name).


96. What dynamic data replication?

Updating or Inserting records in remote database through database triggers. It may fail if remote database is having any problem.


97. What is Two-Phase Commit ?

Two-phase commit is mechanism that guarantees a distributed transaction either commits on all involved nodes or rolls back on all involved nodes to maintain data consistency across the global distributed database. It has two phase, a Prepare Phase and a Commit Phase.


98. How can you Enforce Referential Integrity in snapshots ?

Time the references to occur when master tables are not in use. Peform the reference the manually immdiately locking the master tables. We can join tables in snopshots by creating a complex snapshots that will based on the master tables.


99. What is a SQL * NET?

SQL *NET is ORACLE’s mechanism for interfacing with the communication protocols used by the networks that facilitate distributed processing and distributed databases. It is used in Clint-Server and Server-Server communications.


100. What is a SNAPSHOT ?

Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node which is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table.


101. What is the mechanism provided by ORACLE for table replication ?

Snapshots and SNAPSHOT LOGs


102. What is snapshots?

Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate data between distribute database at specified time intervals. In ver 7.0 they are read only.


103. What are the various type of snapshots?

Simple and Complex.


104. Describe two phases of Two-phase commit ?

Prepare phase – The global coordinator (initiating node) ask a participants to prepare (to promise to commit or rollback the transaction, even if there is a failure) Commit – Phase – If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared, the coordinator asks all nodes to commit the transaction, if all participants cannot prepare, the coordinator asks all nodes to roll back the transaction.


105. What is snapshot log ?

It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot. It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. It should be created before creating snapshots.


106. What are the benefits of distributed options in databases?

Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit.
Database uses a two phase commit.


107. What are the options available to refresh snapshots ?

COMPLETE – Tables are completely regenerated using the snapshots query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced.
FAST – If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send the changes to the snapshot tables.
FORCE – Default value. If possible it performs a FAST refresh; Otherwise it will perform a complete refresh.


108. What is a SNAPSHOT LOG ?

A snapshot log is a table in the master database that is associated with the master table. ORACLE uses a snapshot log to track the rows that have been updated in the master table. Snapshot logs are used in updating the snapshots based on the master table.


109. What is Distributed database ?

A distributed database is a network of databases managed by multiple database servers that appears to a user as single logical database. The data of all databases in the distributed database can be simultaneously accessed and modified.


110. How can we reduce the network traffic?

– Replication of data in distributed environment.
– Using snapshots to replicate data.
– Using remote procedure calls.


111. Differentiate simple and complex, snapshots ?

– A simple snapshot is based on a query that does not contains GROUP BY clauses, CONNECT BY clauses, JOINs, sub-query or snashot of operations.
– A complex snapshots contain atleast any one of the above.


112. What are the Built-ins used for sending Parameters to forms?

You can pass parameter values to a form when an application executes the call_form, New_form, Open_form or Run_product.


113. Can you have more than one content canvas view attached with a window?

Yes. Each window you create must have atleast one content canvas view assigned to it. You can also create a window that has manipulated content canvas view. At run time only one of the content canvas views assign to a window is displayed at a time.


114. Is the After report trigger fired if the report execution fails?



115. Does a Before form trigger fire when the parameter form is suppressed?



116. What is SGA?

The System Global Area in an Oracle database is the area in memory to facilitate the transfer of information between users. It holds the most recently requested structural information between users. It holds the most recently requested structural information about the database. The structure is database buffers, dictionary cache, redo log buffer and shared pool area.


117. What is a shared pool?

The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA called the shared pool. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL statements among concurrent users.


118. What is mean by Program Global Area (PGA)?

It is area in memory that is used by a single Oracle user process.


119. What is a data segment?

Data segment are the physical areas within a database block in which the data associated with tables and clusters are stored.


120. What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL statements in SGA?

Due to insufficient shared pool size.
Monitor the ratio of the reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. If the ratio is greater than 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE.

121. What are clusters?

Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together.


122. What is cluster key?

The related columns of the tables in a cluster are called the cluster key.


123. Do a view contain data?

Views do not contain or store data.


124. What is user Account in Oracle database?

A user account is not a physical structure in database but it is having important relationship to the objects in the database and will be having certain privileges.


125. How will you enforce security using stored procedures?

Don’t grant user access directly to tables within the application. Instead grant the ability to access the procedures that access the tables. When procedure executed it will execute the privilege of procedures owner. Users cannot access tables except via the procedure.


126. What are the dictionary tables used to monitor a database space?



127. Can a property clause itself be based on a property clause?



128. If a parameter is used in a query without being previously defined, what diff. exist betw. report 2.0 and 2.5 when the query is applied?

While both reports 2.0 and 2.5 create the parameter, report 2.5 gives a message that a bind parameter has been created.


129. What are the sql clauses supported in the link property sheet?

Where start with having.


130. What is trigger associated with the timer?



131. What are the trigger associated with image items?

When-image-activated fires when the operators double clicks on an image itemwhen-image-pressed fires when an operator clicks or double clicks on an image item


132. What are the different windows events activated at runtimes?

Within this triggers, you can examine the built in system variable system. event_window to determine the name of the window for which the trigger fired.


133. When do you use data parameter type?

When the value of a data parameter being passed to a called product is always the name of the record group defined in the current form. Data parameters are used to pass data to produts invoked with the run_product built-in subprogram.


134. What is difference between open_form and call_form?

when one form invokes another form by executing open_form the first form remains displayed, and operators can navigate between the forms as desired. when one form invokes another form by executing call_form, the called form is modal with respect to the calling form. That is, any windows that belong to the calling form are disabled, and operators cannot navigate to them until they first exit the called form.


135. What is new_form built-in?

When one form invokes another form by executing new_form oracle form exits the first form and releases its memory before loading the new form calling new form completely replace the first with the second. If there are changes pending in the first form, the operator will be prompted to save them before the new form is loaded.


136. What is the “LOV of Validation” Property of an item? What is the use of it?

When LOV for Validation is set to True, Oracle Forms compares the current value of the text item to the values in the first column displayed in the LOV. Whenever the validation event occurs. If the value in the text item matches one of the values in the first column of the LOV, validation succeeds, the LOV is not displayed, and processing continues normally. If the value in the text item does not match one of the values in the first column of the LOV, Oracle Forms displays the LOV and uses the text item value as the search criteria to automatically reduce the list.


137. What is the diff. when Flex mode is mode on and when it is off?

When flex mode is on, reports automatically resizes the parent when the child is resized.


138. What is the diff. when confine mode is on and when it is off?

When confine mode is on, an object cannot be moved outside its parent in the layout.


139. What are visual attributes?

Visual attributes are the font, color, pattern proprieties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application interface.


140. Which of the two views should objects according to possession?

view by structure.


141. What are the two types of views available in the object navigator(specific to report 2.5)?

View by structure and view by type .


142. What are the vbx controls?

Vbx control provide a simple method of building and enhancing user interfaces. The controls can use to obtain user inputs and display program outputs.vbx control where originally develop as extensions for the ms visual basic environments and include such items as sliders, rides and knobs.


143. What is the use of transactional triggers?

Using transactional triggers we can control or modify the default functionality of the oracle forms.


144. How do you create a new session while open a new form?

Using open_form built-in setting the session option Ex. Open_form(‘Stocks ‘,active,session). when invoke the mulitiple forms with open form and call_form in the same application, state whether the following are true/False


145. What are the ways to monitor the performance of the report?

Use reports profile executable statement. Use SQL trace facility.


146. If two groups are not linked in the data model editor, What is the hierarchy between them?

Two group that is above are the left most rank higher than the group that is to right or below it.


147. An open form can not be execute the call_form procedure if you chain of called forms has been initiated by another open form?



148. Explain about horizontal, Vertical tool bar canvas views?

Tool bar canvas views are used to create tool bars for individual windows. Horizontal tool bars are display at the top of a window, just under its menu bar. Vertical Tool bars are displayed along the left side of a window


149. What is the purpose of the product order option in the column property sheet?

To specify the order of individual group evaluation in a cross products.


150. What is the use of image_zoom built-in?

To manipulate images in image items.


151. How do you reference a parameter indirectly?

To indirectly reference a parameter use the NAME IN, COPY ‘built-ins to indirectly set and reference the parameters value’ Example name_in (‘capital parameter my param’), Copy (‘SURESH’,’Parameter my_param’)


152. What is a timer?

Timer is an “internal time clock” that you can programmatically create to perform an action each time the times.


153. What are the two phases of block coordination?

There are two phases of block coordination: the clear phase and the population phase. During, the clear phase, Oracle Forms navigates internally to the detail block and flushes the obsolete detail records. During the population phase, Oracle Forms issues a SELECT statement to repopulate the detail block with detail records associated with the new master record. These operations are accomplished through the execution of triggers.


154. What are Most Common types of Complex master-detail relationships?

There are three most common types of complex master-detail relationships:
master with dependent details
master with independent details
detail with two masters


155. What is a text list?

The text list style list item appears as a rectangular box which displays the fixed number of values. When the text list contains values that can not be displayed, a vertical scroll bar appears, allowing the operator to view and select undisplayed values.



156. What is term?

The term is terminal definition file that describes the terminal form which you are using r20run.


157. What is use of term?

The term file which key is correspond to which oracle report functions.


158. What is pop list?

The pop list style list item appears initially as a single field (similar to a text item field). When the operator selects the list icon, a list of available choices appears.


159. What is the maximum no of chars the parameter can store?

The maximum no of chars the parameter can store is only valid for char parameters, which can be upto 64K. No parameters default to 23Bytes and Date parameter default to 7Bytes.


160. What are the default extensions of the files created by library module?

The default file extensions indicate the library module type and storage format .pll – pl/sql library module binary


161. What are the Coordination Properties in a Master-Detail relationship?

The coordination properties are
These Properties determine when the population phase of block
coordination should occur.


162. How do you display console on a window ?

The console includes the status line and message line, and is displayed at the bottom of the window to which it is assigned.To specify that the console should be displayed, set the console window form property to the name of any window in the form. To include the console, set console window to Null.


163. What are the different Parameter types?

Text ParametersData Parameters


164. State any three mouse events system variables?



165. What are the types of calculated columns available?

Summary, Formula, Placeholder column.


166. Explain about stacked canvas views?

Stacked canvas view is displayed in a window on top of, or “stacked” on the content canvas view assigned to that same window. Stacked canvas views obscure some part of the underlying content canvas view, and or often shown and hidden programmatically.


167. How does one do off-line database backups? (for DBA

Shut down the database from sqlplus or server manager. Backup all files to secondary storage (eg. tapes). Ensure that you backup all data files, all control files and all log files. When completed, restart your database.
Do the following queries to get a list of all files that needs to be backed up:
select name from sys.v_$datafile;
select member from sys.v_$logfile;
select name from sys.v_$controlfile;
Sometimes Oracle takes forever to shutdown with the “immediate” option. As workaround to this problem, shutdown using these commands:
alter system checkpoint;
shutdown abort
startup restrict
shutdown immediate
Note that if you database is in ARCHIVELOG mode, one can still use archived log files to roll forward from an off-line backup. If you cannot take your database down for a cold (off-line) backup at a convenient time, switch your database into ARCHIVELOG mode and perform hot (on-line) backups.


168. What is the difference between SHOW_EDITOR and EDIT_TEXTITEM?

Show editor is the generic built-in which accepts any editor name and takes some input string and returns modified output string. Whereas the edit_textitem built-in needs the input focus to be in the text item before the built-in is executed.


169. What are the built-ins that are used to Attach an LOV programmatically to an item?

(by setting the LOV_NAME property)


170. How does one do on-line database backups? (for DBA

Each tablespace that needs to be backed-up must be switched into backup mode before copying the files out to secondary storage (tapes). Look at this simple example.
! cp xyfFile1 /backupDir/
It is better to backup tablespace for tablespace than to put all tablespaces in backup mode. Backing them up separately incurs less overhead. When done, remember to backup your control files. Look at this example:
ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE; — Force log switch to update control file headers
NOTE: Do not run on-line backups during peak processing periods. Oracle will write complete database blocks instead of the normal deltas to redo log files while in backup mode. This will lead to excessive database archiving and even database freezes.


171. How does one backup a database using RMAN? (for DBA

The biggest advantage of RMAN is that it only backup used space in the database. Rman doesn’t put tablespaces in backup mode, saving on redo generation overhead. RMAN will re-read database blocks until it gets a consistent image of it. Look at this simple backup example.
rman target sys/*** nocatalog
run {
allocate channel t1 type disk;
format ‘/app/oracle/db_backup/%d_t%t_s%s_p%p’
( database );
release channel t1;
Example RMAN restore:
rman target sys/*** nocatalog
run {
allocate channel t1 type disk;
# set until time ‘Aug 07 2000 :51’;
restore tablespace users;
recover tablespace users;
release channel t1;
The examples above are extremely simplistic and only useful for illustrating basic concepts. By default Oracle uses the database controlfiles to store information about backups. Normally one would rather setup a RMAN catalog database to store RMAN metadata in. Read the Oracle Backup and Recovery Guide before implementing any RMAN backups.
Note: RMAN cannot write image copies directly to tape. One needs to use a third-party media manager that integrates with RMAN to backup directly to tape. Alternatively one can backup to disk and then manually copy the backups to tape.


172. What are the different file extensions that are created by oracle reports?

Rep file and Rdf file.


173. What is strip sources generate options?

Removes the source code from the library file and generates a library files that contains only pcode. The resulting file can be used for final deployment, but can not be subsequently edited in the designer.ex. f45gen module=old_lib.pll userid=scott/tiger strip_source YES output_file


173. How does one put a database into ARCHIVELOG mode? (for DBA

The main reason for running in archivelog mode is that one can provide 24-hour availability and guarantee complete data recoverability. It is also necessary to enable ARCHIVELOG mode before one can start to use on-line database backups. To enable ARCHIVELOG mode, simply change your database startup command script, and bounce the database:
SQLPLUS> connect sys as sysdba
SQLPLUS> startup mount exclusive;
SQLPLUS> alter database archivelog;
SQLPLUS> archive log start;
SQLPLUS> alter database open;
NOTE1: Remember to take a baseline database backup right after enabling archivelog mode. Without it one would not be able to recover. Also, implement an archivelog backup to prevent the archive log directory from filling-up.
NOTE2: ARCHIVELOG mode was introduced with Oracle V6, and is essential for database point-in-time recovery. Archiving can be used in combination with on-line and off-line database backups.
NOTE3: You may want to set the following INIT.ORA parameters when enabling ARCHIVELOG mode: log_archive_start=TRUE, log_archive_dest=… and log_archive_format=…
NOTE4: You can change the archive log destination of a database on-line with the ARCHIVE LOG START TO ‘directory’; statement. This statement is often used to switch archiving between a set of directories.
NOTE5: When running Oracle Real Application Server (RAC), you need to shut down all nodes before changing the database to ARCHIVELOG mode.


174. What is the basic data structure that is required for creating an LOV?

Record Group.


175. How does one backup archived log files? (for DBA

One can backup archived log files using RMAN or any operating system backup utility. Remember to delete files after backing them up to prevent the archive log directory from filling up. If the archive log directory becomes full, your database will hang! Look at this simple RMAN backup script:
RMAN> run {
2> allocate channel dev1 type disk;
3> backup
4> format ‘/app/oracle/arch_backup/log_t%t_s%s_p%p’
5> (archivelog all delete input);
6> release channel dev1;
7> }


176. Does Oracle write to data files in begin/hot backup mode? (for DBA

Oracle will stop updating file headers, but will continue to write data to the database files even if a tablespace is in backup mode.
In backup mode, Oracle will write out complete changed blocks to the redo log files. Normally only deltas (changes) are logged to the redo logs. This is done to enable reconstruction of a block if only half of it was backed up (split blocks). Because of this, one should notice increased log activity and archiving during on-line backups.


177. What is the Maximum allowed length of Record group Column?

Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters.


178. Which parameter can be used to set read level consistency across multiple queries?

Read only


179. What are the different types of Record Groups?

Query Record Groups
NonQuery Record Groups
State Record Groups


180. From which designation is it preferred to send the output to the printed?



181. what are difference between post database commit and post-form commit?

Post-form commit fires once during the post and commit transactions process, after the database commit occurs. The post-form-commit trigger fires after inserts, updates and deletes have been posted to the database but before the transactions have been finalized in the issuing the command. The post-database-commit trigger fires after oracle forms issues the commit to finalized transactions.


182. What are the different display styles of list items?

Pop_listText_listCombo box


183. Which of the above methods is the faster method?

performing the calculation in the query is faster.


184. With which function of summary item is the compute at options required?

percentage of total functions.


185. What are parameters?

Parameters provide a simple mechanism for defining and setting the valuesof inputs that are required by a form at startup. Form parameters are variables of type char,number,date that you define at design time.


186. What are the three types of user exits available ?

Oracle Precompiler exits, Oracle call interface, NonOracle user exits.


187. How many windows in a form can have console?

Only one window in a form can display the console, and you cannot change the console assignment at runtime.


188. What is an administrative (privileged) user? (for DBA

Oracle DBAs and operators typically use administrative accounts to manage the database and database instance. An administrative account is a user that is granted SYSOPER or SYSDBA privileges. SYSDBA and SYSOPER allow access to a database instance even if it is not running. Control of these privileges is managed outside of the database via password files and special operating system groups. This password file is created with the orapwd utility.


189.What are the two repeating frame always associated with matrix object?

One down repeating frame below one across repeating frame.


190. What are the master-detail triggers?\



191. How does one connect to an administrative user? (for DBA

If an administrative user belongs to the “dba” group on Unix, or the “ORA_DBA” (ORA_sid_DBA) group on NT, he/she can connect like this:
connect / as sysdba
No password is required. This is equivalent to the desupported “connect internal” method.
A password is required for “non-secure” administrative access. These passwords are stored in password files. Remote connections via Net8 are classified as non-secure. Look at this example:
connect sys/password as sysdba


192. How does one create a password file? (for DBA

The Oracle Password File ($ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapw or orapwSID) stores passwords for users with administrative privileges. One needs to create a password files before remote administrators (like OEM) will be allowed to connect.
Follow this procedure to create a new password file:
. Log in as the Oracle software owner
. Runcommand: orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapw$ORACLE_SID password=mypasswd
. Shutdown the database (SQLPLUS> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE)
. Edit the INIT.ORA file and ensure REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=exclusive is set.
. Startup the database (SQLPLUS> STARTUP)
NOTE: The orapwd utility presents a security risk in that it receives a password from the command line. This password is visible in the process table of many systems. Administrators needs to be aware of this!


193. Is it possible to modify an external query in a report which contains it?



194. Does a grouping done for objects in the layout editor affect the grouping done in the data model editor?



195. How does one add users to a password file? (for DBA

One can select from the SYS.V_$PWFILE_USERS view to see which users are listed in the password file. New users can be added to the password file by granting them SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges, or by using the orapwd utility. GRANT SYSDBA TO scott;


196. If a break order is set on a column would it affect columns which are under the column?



197. Why are OPS$ accounts a security risk in a client/server environment? (for DBA

If you allow people to log in with OPS$ accounts from Windows Workstations, you cannot be sure who they really are. With terminals, you can rely on operating system passwords, with Windows, you cannot.
If you set REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT=TRUE in your init.ora file, Oracle assumes that the remote OS has authenticated the user. If REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT is set to FALSE (recommended), remote users will be unable to connect without a password. IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY will only be in effect from the local host. Also, if you are using “OPS$” as your prefix, you will be able to log on locally with or without a password, regardless of whether you have identified your ID with a password or defined it to be IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY.


198. Do user parameters appear in the data modal editor in 2.5?



199. Can you pass data parameters to forms?



200. Is it possible to link two groups inside a cross products after the cross products group has been created?



201. What are the different modals of windows?

Modalless windows
Modal windows


202. What are modal windows?

Modal windows are usually used as dialogs, and have restricted functionality compared to modelless windows. On some platforms for example operators cannot resize, scroll or iconify a modal window.


203. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Non-isolated?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers
Non-Isolated(the default) On-Check-Delete-Master


204. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to isolated?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers
Isolated On-Clear-Details


205. What are the different default triggers created when Master Deletes Property is set to Cascade?

Master Deletes Property Resulting Triggers
Cascading On-Clear-Details


206. What is the diff. bet. setting up of parameters in reports 2.0 reports2.5?

LOVs can be attached to parameters in the reports 2.5 parameter form.


207. What are the difference between lov & list item?

Lov is a property where as list item is an item. A list item can have only one column, lov can have one or more columns.


208. What is the advantage of the library?

Libraries provide a convenient means of storing client-side program units and sharing them among multiple applications. Once you create a library, you can attach it to any other form, menu, or library modules. When you can call library program units from triggers menu items commands and user named routine, you write in the modules to which you have attach the library. When a library attaches another library, program units in the first library can reference program units in the attached library. Library support dynamic loading-that is library program units are loaded into an application only when needed. This can significantly reduce the run-time memory requirements of applications.


209. What is lexical reference? How can it be created?

Lexical reference is place_holder for text that can be embedded in a sql statements. A lexical reference can be created using & before the column or parameter name.


210. What is system.coordination_operation?

It represents the coordination causing event that occur on the master block in master-detail relation.


211. What is synchronize?

It is a terminal screen with the internal state of the form. It updates the screen display to reflect the information that oracle forms has in its internal representation of the screen.


212. What use of command line parameter cmd file?

It is a command line argument that allows you to specify a file that contain a set of arguments for r20run.


213. What is a Text_io Package?

It allows you to read and write information to a file in the file system.


214. What is forms_DDL?

Issues dynamic Sql statements at run time, including server side pl/SQl and DDL


215. How is link tool operation different bet. reports 2 & 2.5?

In Reports 2.0 the link tool has to be selected and then two fields to be linked are selected and the link is automatically created. In 2.5 the first field is selected and the link tool is then used to link the first field to the second field.


216. What are the different styles of activation of ole Objects?

In place activationExternal activation


217. How do you reference a Parameter?

In Pl/Sql, You can reference and set the values of form parameters using bind variables syntax. Ex. PARAMETER name = ” or :block.item = PARAMETER Parameter name


218. What is the difference between object embedding & linking in Oracle forms?

In Oracle forms, Embedded objects become part of the form module, and linked objects are references from a form module to a linked source file.


219. Name of the functions used to get/set canvas properties?

Get_view_property, Set_view_property


220. What are the built-ins that are used for setting the LOV properties at runtime?



221. What are the built-ins used for processing rows?



222. What are built-ins used for Processing rows?



223. What are the built-in used for getting cell values?



224. What are the built-ins used for Getting cell values?



225. Atleast how many set of data must a data model have before a data model can be base on it?



226. To execute row from being displayed that still use column in the row which property can be used?

Format trigger.


227. What are different types of modules available in oracle form?

Form module – a collection of objects and code routines Menu modules – a collection of menus and menu item commands that together make up an application menu library module – a collection of user named procedures, functions and packages that can be called from other modules in the application


228. What is the remove on exit property?

For a modelless window, it determines whether oracle forms hides the window automatically when the operators navigates to an item in the another window.


229. What is WHEN-Database-record trigger?

Fires when oracle forms first marks a record as an insert or an update. The trigger fires as soon as oracle forms determines through validation that the record should be processed by the next post or commit as an insert or update. c generally occurs only when the operators modifies the first item in the record, and after the operator attempts to navigate out of the item.


230. What is a difference between pre-select and pre-query?

Fires during the execute query and count query processing after oracle forms constructs the select statement to be issued, but before the statement is actually issued. The pre-query trigger fires just before oracle forms issues the select statement to the database after the operator as define the example records by entering the query criteria in enter query mode.Pre-query trigger fires before pre-select trigger.


231. What are built-ins associated with timers?



232. What are the built-ins used for finding object ID functions?



233. What are the built-ins used for finding Object ID function?



234. Any attempt to navigate programmatically to disabled form in a call_form stack is allowed?



235. Use the Add_group_row procedure to add a row to a static record group 1. true or false?



236. What third party tools can be used with Oracle EBU/ RMAN? (for DBA

The following Media Management Software Vendors have integrated their media management software packages with Oracle Recovery Manager and Oracle7 Enterprise Backup Utility. The Media Management Vendors will provide first line technical support for the integrated backup/recover solutions.
Veritas NetBackup
EMC Data Manager (EDM)
IBM’s Tivoli Storage Manager – formerly ADSM
Legato Networker
ManageIT Backup and Recovery
Sterling Software’s SAMS:Alexandria – formerly from Spectralogic
Sun Solstice Backup


237. Why and when should one tune? (for DBA

One of the biggest responsibilities of a DBA is to ensure that the Oracle database is tuned properly. The Oracle RDBMS is highly tunable and allows the database to be monitored and adjusted to increase its performance. One should do performance tuning for the following reasons:
The speed of computing might be wasting valuable human time (users waiting for response); Enable your system to keep-up with the speed business is conducted; and Optimize hardware usage to save money (companies are spending millions on hardware). Although this FAQ is not overly concerned with hardware issues, one needs to remember than you cannot tune a Buick into a Ferrari.


238. How can a break order be created on a column in an existing group? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

By dragging the column outside the group.


239. What is the use of place holder column? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

A placeholder column is used to hold calculated values at a specified place rather than allowing is to appear in the actual row where it has to appear.


240. What is the use of hidden column? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

A hidden column is used to when a column has to embed into boilerplate text.


241. What database aspects should be monitored? (for DBA

One should implement a monitoring system to constantly monitor the following aspects of a database. Writing custom scripts, implementing Oracle’s Enterprise Manager, or buying a third-party monitoring product can achieve this. If an alarm is triggered, the system should automatically notify the DBA (e-mail, page, etc.) to take appropriate action.
Infrastructure availability:
. Is the database up and responding to requests
. Are the listeners up and responding to requests
. Are the Oracle Names and LDAP Servers up and responding to requests
. Are the Web Listeners up and responding to requests

Things that can cause service outages:
. Is the archive log destination filling up?
. Objects getting close to their max extents
. User and process limits reached

Things that can cause bad performance:
See question “What tuning indicators can one use?”.


242. Where should the tuning effort be directed? (for DBA

Consider the following areas for tuning. The order in which steps are listed needs to be maintained to prevent tuning side effects. For example, it is no good increasing the buffer cache if you can reduce I/O by rewriting a SQL statement. Database Design (if it’s not too late):
Poor system performance usually results from a poor database design. One should generally normalize to the 3NF. Selective denormalization can provide valuable performance improvements. When designing, always keep the “data access path” in mind. Also look at proper data partitioning, data replication, aggregation tables for decision support systems, etc.
Application Tuning:
Experience showed that approximately 80% of all Oracle system performance problems are resolved by coding optimal SQL. Also consider proper scheduling of batch tasks after peak working hours.
Memory Tuning:
Properly size your database buffers (shared pool, buffer cache, log buffer, etc) by looking at your buffer hit ratios. Pin large objects into memory to prevent frequent reloads.
Disk I/O Tuning:
Database files needs to be properly sized and placed to provide maximum disk subsystem throughput. Also look for frequent disk sorts, full table scans, missing indexes, row chaining, data fragmentation, etc
Eliminate Database Contention:
Study database locks, latches and wait events carefully and eliminate where possible. Tune the Operating System:
Monitor and tune operating system CPU, I/O and memory utilization. For more information, read the related Oracle FAQ dealing with your specific operating system.


243. What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

Double clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down, mouse up, mouse click, mouse down & mouse up events.


245. What are the default parameter that appear at run time in the parameter screen? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

Destype and Desname.


246. What are the built-ins used for Creating and deleting groups?

CREATE-GROUP (function)


247. What are different types of canvas views?

Content canvas views
Stacked canvas views
Horizontal toolbar
vertical toolbar.


248. What are the different types of Delete details we can establish in Master-Details?



249. What is relation between the window and canvas views?

Canvas views are the back ground objects on which you place the interface items (Text items), check boxes, radio groups etc.,) and boilerplate objects (boxes, lines, images etc.,) that operators interact with us they run your form . Each canvas views displayed in a window.


250. What is a User_exit?

Calls the user exit named in the user_exit_string. Invokes a 3Gl program by name which has been properly linked into your current oracle forms executable.


251. How is it possible to select generate a select set for the query in the query property sheet?

By using the tables/columns button and then specifying the table and the column names.


252. How can values be passed bet. precompiler exits & Oracle call interface?

By using the statement EXECIAFGET & EXECIAFPUT.


253. How can a square be drawn in the layout editor of the report writer?

By using the rectangle tool while pressing the (Constraint) key.


254. How can a text file be attached to a report while creating in the report writer?

By using the link file property in the layout boiler plate property sheet.


255. How can I message to passed to the user from reports?

By using SRW.MESSAGE function.


256. Does one need to drop/ truncate objects before importing? (for DBA

Before one import rows into already populated tables, one needs to truncate or drop these tables to get rid of the old data. If not, the new data will be appended to the existing tables. One must always DROP existing Sequences before re-importing. If the sequences are not dropped, they will generate numbers inconsistent with the rest of the database. Note: It is also advisable to drop indexes before importing to speed up the import process. Indexes can easily be recreated after the data was successfully imported.


257. How can a button be used in a report to give a drill down facility?

By setting the action associated with button to Execute pl/sql option and using the SRW.Run_report function.


258. Can one import/export between different versions of Oracle? (for DBA

Different versions of the import utility is upwards compatible. This means that one can take an export file created from an old export version, and import it using a later version of the import utility. This is quite an effective way of upgrading a database from one release of Oracle to the next.
Oracle also ships some previous catexpX.sql scripts that can be executed as user SYS enabling older imp/exp versions to work (for backwards compatibility). For example, one can run $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catexp7.sql on an Oracle 8 database to allow the Oracle 7.3 exp/imp utilities to run against an Oracle 8 database.


259. What are different types of images?

Boiler plate imagesImage Items


260. Can one export to multiple files?/ Can one beat the Unix 2 Gig limit? (for DBA

From Oracle8i, the export utility supports multiple output files. This feature enables large exports to be divided into files whose sizes will not exceed any operating system limits (FILESIZE= parameter). When importing from multi-file export you must provide the same filenames in the same sequence in the FILE= parameter. Look at this example:
exp SCOTT/TIGER FILE=D:\F1.dmp,E:\F2.dmp FILESIZE=10m LOG=scott.log
Use the following technique if you use an Oracle version prior to 8i:
Create a compressed export on the fly. Depending on the type of data, you probably can export up to 10 gigabytes to a single file. This example uses gzip. It offers the best compression I know of, but you can also substitute it with zip, compress or whatever.
# create a named pipe
mknod exp.pipe p
# read the pipe – output to zip file in the background
gzip < exp.pipe > scott.exp.gz &
# feed the pipe
exp userid=scott/tiger file=exp.pipe …


261. What is bind reference and how can it be created?

Bind reference are used to replace the single value in sql, pl/sql statements a bind reference can be created using a (:) before a column or a parameter name.


262. How can one improve Import/ Export performance? (for DBA


. Set the BUFFER parameter to a high value (e.g. 2M)
. Set the RECORDLENGTH parameter to a high value (e.g. 64K)
. Stop unnecessary applications to free-up resources for your job.
. If you run multiple export sessions, ensure they write to different physical disks.
. DO NOT export to an NFS mounted filesystem. It will take forever.

. Create an indexfile so that you can create indexes AFTER you have imported data. Do this by setting INDEXFILE to a filename and then import. No data will be imported but a file containing index definitions will be created. You must edit this file afterwards and supply the passwords for the schemas on all CONNECT statements.
. Place the file to be imported on a separate physical disk from the oracle data files
. Increase DB_CACHE_SIZE (DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS prior to 9i) considerably in the init$SID.ora file
. Set the LOG_BUFFER to a big value and restart oracle.
. Stop redo log archiving if it is running (ALTER DATABASE NOARCHIVELOG;)
. Create a BIG tablespace with a BIG rollback segment inside. Set all other rollback segments offline (except the SYSTEM rollback segment of course). The rollback segment must be as big as your biggest table (I think?)
. Use COMMIT=N in the import parameter file if you can afford it
. Use ANALYZE=N in the import parameter file to avoid time consuming ANALYZE statements
. Remember to run the indexfile previously created


263. Give the sequence of execution of the various report triggers?

Before form , After form , Before report, Between page, After report.


264. What are the common Import/ Export problems? (for DBA

ORA-00001: Unique constraint (…) violated – You are importing duplicate rows. Use IGNORE=NO to skip tables that already exist (imp will give an error if the object is re-created).
ORA-01555: Snapshot too old – Ask your users to STOP working while you are exporting or use parameter CONSISTENT=NO
ORA-01562: Failed to extend rollback segment – Create bigger rollback segments or set parameter COMMIT=Y while importing
IMP-00015: Statement failed … object already exists… – Use the IGNORE=Y import parameter to ignore these errors, but be careful as you might end up with duplicate rows.


265. Why is it preferable to create a fewer no. of queries in the data model?

Because for each query, report has to open a separate cursor and has to rebind, execute and fetch data.


266. Where is the external query executed at the client or the server?

At the server.


267. Where is a procedure return in an external pl/sql library executed at the client or at the server?

At the client.


268. What is coordination Event?

Any event that makes a different record in the master block the current record is a coordination causing event.


269. What is the difference between OLE Server & Ole Container?

An Ole server application creates ole Objects that are embedded or linked in ole Containers ex. Ole servers are ms_word & ms_excel. OLE containers provide a place to store, display and manipulate objects that are created by ole server applications. Ex. oracle forms is an example of an ole Container.


270. What is an object group?

An object group is a container for a group of objects; you define an object group when you want to package related objects, so that you copy or reference them in other modules.


271. What is an LOV?

An LOV is a scrollable popup window that provides the operator with either a single or multi column selection list.


272. At what point of report execution is the before Report trigger fired?

After the query is executed but before the report is executed and the records are displayed.


273. What are the built -ins used for Modifying a groups structure?

ADD_GROUP_ROW (procedure)


274. What is an user exit used for?

A way in which to pass control (and possibly arguments ) form Oracle report to another Oracle products of 3 GL and then return control ( and ) back to Oracle reports.


275. What is the User-Named Editor?

A user named editor has the same text editing functionality as the default editor, but, because it is a named object, you can specify editor attributes such as windows display size, position, and title.


276. My database was terminated while in BACKUP MODE, do I need to recover? (for DBA

If a database was terminated while one of its tablespaces was in BACKUP MODE (ALTER TABLESPACE xyz BEGIN BACKUP;), it will tell you that media recovery is required when you try to restart the database. The DBA is then required to recover the database and apply all archived logs to the database. However, from Oracle7.2, you can simply take the individual datafiles out of backup mode and restart the database.
One can select from V$BACKUP to see which datafiles are in backup mode. This normally saves a significant amount of database down time.
Thiru Vadivelu contributed the following:
From Oracle9i onwards, the following command can be used to take all of the datafiles out of hot backup mode:
The above commands need to be issued when the database is mounted.


277. What is a Static Record Group?

A static record group is not associated with a query, rather, you define its structure and row values at design time, and they remain fixed at runtime.


278. What is a record group?

A record group is an internal Oracle Forms that structure that has a column/row framework similar to a database table. However, unlike database tables, record groups are separate objects that belong to the form module which they are defined.

279. My database is down and I cannot restore. What now? (for DBA

Recovery without any backup is normally not supported, however, Oracle Consulting can sometimes extract data from an offline database using a utility called DUL (Disk UnLoad). This utility reads data in the data files and unloads it into SQL*Loader or export dump files. DUL does not care about rollback segments, corrupted blocks, etc, and can thus not guarantee that the data is not logically corrupt. It is intended as an absolute last resort and will most likely cost your company a lot of money!!!


280. I’ve lost my REDOLOG files, how can I get my DB back? (for DBA

The following INIT.ORA parameter may be required if your current redo logs are corrupted or blown away. Caution is advised when enabling this parameter as you might end-up losing your entire database. Please contact Oracle Support before using it. _allow_resetlogs_corruption = true


281. What is a property clause?

A property clause is a named object that contains a list of properties and their settings. Once you create a property clause you can base other object on it. An object based on a property can inherit the setting of any property in the clause that makes sense for that object.


282. What is a physical page ? & What is a logical page ?

A physical page is a size of a page. That is output by the printer. The logical page is the size of one page of the actual report as seen in the Previewer.


283. I’ve lost some Rollback Segments, how can I get my DB back? (for DBA

Re-start your database with the following INIT.ORA parameter if one of your rollback segments is corrupted. You can then drop the corrupted rollback segments and create it from scratch.
Caution is advised when enabling this parameter, as uncommitted transactions will be marked as committed. One can very well end up with lost or inconsistent data!!! Please contact Oracle Support before using it. _Corrupted_rollback_segments = (rbs01, rbs01, rbs03, rbs04)


284. What are the differences between EBU and RMAN? (for DBA

Enterprise Backup Utility (EBU) is a functionally rich, high performance interface for backing up Oracle7 databases. It is sometimes referred to as OEBU for Oracle Enterprise Backup Utility. The Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) utility that ships with Oracle8 and above is similar to Oracle7’s EBU utility. However, there is no direct upgrade path from EBU to RMAN.


285. How does one create a RMAN recovery catalog? (for DBA

Start by creating a database schema (usually called rman). Assign an appropriate tablespace to it and grant it the recovery_catalog_owner role. Look at this example:
sqlplus sys
SQL>create user rman identified by rman;
SQL> alter user rman default tablespace tools temporary tablespace temp;
SQL> alter user rman quota unlimited on tools;
SQL> grant connect, resource, recovery_catalog_owner to rman;
SQL> exit;
Next, log in to rman and create the catalog schema. Prior to Oracle 8i this was done by running the catrman.sql script. rman catalog rman/rman
RMAN>create catalog tablespace tools;
RMAN> exit;
You can now continue by registering your databases in the catalog. Look at this example:
rman catalog rman/rman target backdba/backdba
RMAN> register database;


286. How can a group in a cross products be visually distinguished from a group that does not form a cross product?

A group that forms part of a cross product will have a thicker border.


287. What is the frame & repeating frame?

A frame is a holder for a group of fields. A repeating frame is used to display a set of records when the no. of records that are to displayed is not known before.


288. What is a combo box?

A combo box style list item combines the features found in list and text item. Unlike the pop list or the text list style list items, the combo box style list item will both display fixed values and accept one operator entered value.


289. What are three panes that appear in the run time pl/sql interpreter?

1. Source pane.
2. interpreter pane.
3. Navigator pane.


290. What are the two panes that Appear in the design time pl/sql interpreter?

1. Source pane.
2. Interpreter pane


291. What are the two ways by which data can be generated for a parameters list of values?

1. Using static values.
2. Writing select statement.


292. What are the various methods of performing a calculation in a report ?

1. Perform the calculation in the SQL statements itself.
2. Use a calculated / summary column in the data model.


293. What are the default extensions of the files created by menu module?



294. What are the default extensions of the files created by forms modules?

.fmb – form module binary
.fmx – form module executable


295. To display the page no. for each page on a report what would be the source & logical page no. or & of physical page no.?

& physical page no.


296. It is possible to use raw devices as data files and what is the advantages over file. system files ?

Yes. The advantages over file system files. I/O will be improved because Oracle is bye-passing the kernnel which writing into disk. Disk Corruption will be very less.


297. What are disadvantages of having raw devices ?

We should depend on export/import utility for backup/recovery (fully reliable) The tar command cannot be used for physical file backup, instead we can use dd command which is less flexible and has limited recoveries.


298. What is the significance of having storage clause ?

We can plan the storage for a table as how much initial extents are required, how much can be extended next, how much % should leave free for managing row updations etc.,


299. What is the use of INCTYPE option in EXP command ?

Type export should be performed COMPLETE,CUMULATIVE,INCREMENTAL. List the sequence of events when a large transaction that exceeds beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and causes the rollback segment toexpand into anotion Completes. e. will be written.


300. What is the use of FILE option in IMP command ?

The name of the file from which import should be performed.


301. What is a Shared SQL pool?

The data dictionary cache is stored in an area in SGA called the Shared SQL Pool. This will allow sharing of parsed SQL statements among concurrent users.


302. What is hot backup and how it can be taken?

Taking backup of archive log files when database is open. For this the ARCHIVELOG mode should be enabled. The following files need to be backed up. All data files. All Archive log, redo log files. All control files.


303. List the Optional Flexible Architecture (OFA) of Oracle database? or How can we organize the tablespaces in Oracle database to have maximum performance ?

SYSTEM – Data dictionary tables.
DATA – Standard operational tables.
DATA2- Static tables used for standard operations
INDEXES – Indexes for Standard operational tables.
INDEXES1 – Indexes of static tables used for standard operations.
TOOLS – Tools table.
TOOLS1 – Indexes for tools table.
RBS – Standard Operations Rollback Segments,
RBS1,RBS2 – Additional/Special Rollback segments.
TEMP – Temporary purpose tablespace
TEMP_USER – Temporary tablespace for users.
USERS – User tablespace.


304. How to implement the multiple control files for an existing database ?

Shutdown the database Copy one of the existing control file to new location Edit Config ora file by adding new control file. name Restart the database.


305. What is advantage of having disk shadowing/ Mirroring ?

Shadow set of disks save as a backup in the event of disk failure. In most Operating System if any disk failure occurs it automatically switchover to place of failed disk. Improved performance because most OS support volume shadowing can direct file I/O request to use the shadow set of files instead of the main set of files. This reduces I/O load on the main set of disks.


306. How will you force database to use particular rollback segment ?



307. Why query fails sometimes ?

Rollback segment dynamically extent to handle larger transactions entry loads. A single transaction may wipeout all available free space in the Rollback Segment Tablespace. This prevents other user using Rollback segments.


308. What is the use of RECORD LENGTH option in EXP command ?

Record length in bytes.


309. How will you monitor rollback segment status ?

Querying the DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS view
IN USE – Rollback Segment is on-line.
AVAILABLE – Rollback Segment available but not on-line.
OFF-LINE – Rollback Segment off-line
INVALID – Rollback Segment Dropped.
NEEDS RECOVERY – Contains data but need recovery or corupted.
PARTLY AVAILABLE – Contains data from an unresolved transaction involving a distributed database.


310. What is meant by Redo Log file mirroring ? How it can be achieved?

Process of having a copy of redo log files is called mirroring. This can be achieved by creating group of log files together, so that LGWR will automatically writes them to all the members of the current on-line redo log group. If any one group fails then database automatically switch over to next group. It degrades performance.


311. Which parameter in Storage clause will reduce no. of rows per block?

PCTFREE parameter
Row size also reduces no of rows per block.


312. What is meant by recursive hints ?

Number of times processes repeatedly query the dictionary table is called recursive hints. It is due to the data dictionary cache is too small. By increasing the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter we can optimize the size of Data Dictionary Cache.


313. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ?

Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.


314. What is the difference between locks, latches, enqueues and semaphores? (for DBA

A latch is an internal Oracle mechanism used to protect data structures in the SGA from simultaneous access. Atomic hardware instructions like TEST-AND-SET is used to implement latches. Latches are more restrictive than locks in that they are always exclusive. Latches are never queued, but will spin or sleep until they obtain a resource, or time out.
Enqueues and locks are different names for the same thing. Both support queuing and concurrency. They are queued and serviced in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) order.
Semaphores are an operating system facility used to control waiting. Semaphores are controlled by the following Unix parameters: semmni, semmns and semmsl. Typical settings are:
semmns = sum of the “processes” parameter for each instance
(see init<instance>.ora for each instance)
semmni = number of instances running simultaneously;
semmsl = semmns


315. What is a logical backup?

Logical backup involves reading a set of database records and writing them into a file. Export utility is used for taking backup and Import utility is used to recover from backup.


316. Where can one get a list of all hidden Oracle parameters? (for DBA

Oracle initialization or INIT.ORA parameters with an underscore in front are hidden or unsupported parameters. One can get a list of all hidden parameters by executing this query:
select *
where substr(KSPPINM,1,1) = ‘_’;
The following query displays parameter names with their current value:
select a.ksppinm “Parameter”, b.ksppstvl “Session Value”, c.ksppstvl “Instance Value”
from x$ksppi a, x$ksppcv b, x$ksppsv c
where a.indx = b.indx and a.indx = c.indx
and substr(ksppinm,1,1)=’_’
order by a.ksppinm;
Remember: Thou shall not play with undocumented parameters!


317. What is a database EVENT and how does one set it? (for DBA

Oracle trace events are useful for debugging the Oracle database server. The following two examples are simply to demonstrate syntax. Refer to later notes on this page for an explanation of what these particular events do.
Either adding them to the INIT.ORA parameter file can activate events. E.g.
event=’1401 trace name errorstack, level 12′
… or, by issuing an ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS command: E.g.
alter session set events ‘10046 trace name context forever, level 4’;
The alter session method only affects the user’s current session, whereas changes to the INIT.ORA file will affect all sessions once the database has been restarted.


318. What is a Rollback segment entry ?

It is the set of before image data blocks that contain rows that are modified by a transaction. Each Rollback Segment entry must be completed within one rollback segment. A single rollback segment can have multiple rollback segment entries.


319. What database events can be set? (for DBA

The following events are frequently used by DBAs and Oracle Support to diagnose problems:
” 10046 trace name context forever, level 4 Trace SQL statements and show bind variables in trace output.
” 10046 trace name context forever, level 8 This shows wait events in the SQL trace files
” 10046 trace name context forever, level 12 This shows both bind variable names and wait events in the SQL trace files
” 1401 trace name errorstack, level 12 1401 trace name errorstack, level 4 1401 trace name processstate Dumps out trace information if an ORA-1401 “inserted value too large for column” error occurs. The 1401 can be replaced by any other Oracle Server error code that you want to trace.
” 60 trace name errorstack level 10 Show where in the code Oracle gets a deadlock (ORA-60), and may help to diagnose the problem.
The following lists of events are examples only. They might be version specific, so please call Oracle before using them:
” 10210 trace name context forever, level 10 10211 trace name context forever, level 10 10231 trace name context forever, level 10 These events prevent database block corruptions
” 10049 trace name context forever, level 2 Memory protect cursor
” 10210 trace name context forever, level 2 Data block check
” 10211 trace name context forever, level 2 Index block check
” 10235 trace name context forever, level 1 Memory heap check
” 10262 trace name context forever, level 300 Allow 300 bytes memory leak for connections
Note: You can use the Unix oerr command to get the description of an event. On Unix, you can type “oerr ora 10053” from the command prompt to get event details.


320. How can one dump internal database structures? (for DBA

The following (mostly undocumented) commands can be used to obtain information about internal database structures.
o Dump control file contents
alter session set events ‘immediate trace name CONTROLF level 10’
o Dump file headers
alter session set events ‘immediate trace name FILE_HDRS level 10’
o Dump redo log headers
alter session set events ‘immediate trace name REDOHDR level 10’
o Dump the system state
NOTE: Take 3 successive SYSTEMSTATE dumps, with 10-minute intervals alter session set events ‘immediate trace name SYSTEMSTATE level 10’
o Dump the process state
alter session set events ‘immediate trace name PROCESSSTATE level 10’
o Dump Library Cache details
alter session set events ‘immediate trace name library cache level 10’
o Dump optimizer statistics whenever a SQL statement is parsed (hint: change statement or flush pool) alter session set events ‘10053 trace name context forever, level 1’
o Dump a database block (File/ Block must be converted to DBA address) Convert file and block number to a DBA (database block address).
Eg: variable x varchar2;
exec 😡 := dbms_utility.make_data_block_address(1,12);
print x
alter session set events ‘immediate trace name blockdump level 50360894’


321. What are the different kind of export backups?

Full back – Complete database
Incremental – Only affected tables from last incremental date/full backup date.
Cumulative backup – Only affected table from the last cumulative date/full backup date.


322. How free extents are managed in Ver 6.0 and Ver 7.0 ?

Free extents cannot be merged together in Ver 6.0.
Free extents are periodically coalesces with the neighboring free extent in Ver 7.0


323. What is the use of RECORD option in EXP command?

For Incremental exports, the flag indirects whether a record will be stores data dictionary tables recording the export.

324. What is the use of ROWS option in EXP command ?

Flag to indicate whether table rows should be exported. If ‘N’ only DDL statements for the database objects will be created.


325. What is the use of COMPRESS option in EXP command ?

Flag to indicate whether export should compress fragmented segments into single extents.


326. How will you swap objects into a different table space for an existing database ?

Export the user
Perform import using the command imp system/manager file=export.dmp indexfile=newrite.sql.
This will create all definitions into newfile.sql. Drop necessary objects.
Run the script newfile.sql after altering the tablespaces.
Import from the backup for the necessary objects.


327. How does Space allocation table place within a block ?

Each block contains entries as follows
Fixed block header
Variable block header
Row Header,row date (multiple rows may exists)
PCTEREE (% of free space for row updation in future)


328. What are the factors causing the reparsing of SQL statements in SGA?

Due to insufficient Shared SQL pool size. Monitor the ratio of the reloads takes place while executing SQL statements. If the ratio is greater than 1 then increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE. LOGICAL & PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE OF DATABASE.


329. What is dictionary cache ?

Dictionary cache is information about the databse objects stored in a data dictionary table.


330. What is a Control file ?

Database overall physical architecture is maintained in a file called control file. It will be used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations. Multiple copies of control files are advisable.


331. What is Database Buffers ?

Database buffers are cache in the SGA used to hold the data blocks that are read from the data segments in the database such as tables, indexes and clusters DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS parameter in INIT.ORA decides the size.


332. How will you create multiple rollback segments in a database ?

Create a database which implicitly creates a SYSTEM Rollback Segment in a SYSTEM tablespace. Create a Second Rollback Segment name R0 in the SYSTEM tablespace. Make new rollback segment available (After shutdown, modify init.ora file and Start database) Create other tablespaces (RBS) for rollback segments. Deactivate Rollback Segment R0 and activate the newly created rollback segments.


333. What is cold backup? What are the elements of it?

Cold backup is taking backup of all physical files after normal shutdown of database. We need to take.
– All Data files.
– All Control files.
– All on-line redo log files.
– The init.ora file (Optional)


334. What is meant by redo log buffer ?

Changes made to entries are written to the on-line redo log files. So that they can be used in roll forward operations during database recoveries. Before writing them into the redo log files, they will first brought to redo log buffers in SGA and LGWR will write into files frequently. LOG_BUFFER parameter will decide the size.


335. How will you estimate the space required by a non-clustered tables?

Calculate the total header size
Calculate the available dataspace per data block
Calculate the combined column lengths of the average row
Calculate the total average row size.
Calculate the average number rows that can fit in a block
Calculate the number of blocks and bytes required for the table.
After arriving the calculation, add 10 % additional space to calculate the initial extent size for a working table.


336. How will you monitor the space allocation ?

By querying DBA_SEGMENT table/view.


337. What is meant by free extent ?

A free extent is a collection of continuous free blocks in tablespace. When a segment is dropped its extents are reallocated and are marked as free.


338. What is the use of IGNORE option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether the import should ignore errors encounter when issuing CREATE commands.


339. What is the use of ANALYSE ( Ver 7) option in EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether statistical information about the exported objects should be written to export dump file.


340. What is the use of ROWS option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether rows should be imported. If this is set to ‘N’ then only DDL for database objects will be executed.


341. What is the use of INDEXES option in EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether indexes on tables will be exported.


342. What is the use of INDEXES option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether import should import index on tables or not.


343. What is the use of GRANT option in EXP command?

A flag to indicate whether grants on databse objects will be exported or not. Value is ‘Y’ or ‘N’.


344. What is the use of GRANT option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects will be imported.


345. What is the use of FULL option in EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether full databse export should be performed.


346. What is the use of SHOW option in IMP command ?

A flag to indicate whether file content should be displayed or not.


347. What is the use of CONSTRAINTS option in EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether constraints on table need to be exported.


348. What is the use of CONSISTENT (Ver 7) option in EXP command ?

A flag to indicate whether a read consistent version of all the exported objects should be maintained.


349. What are the different methods of backing up oracle database ?

– Logical Backups
– Cold Backups
– Hot Backups (Archive log)


350. What is the difference between ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger and a POST-CHANGE trigger ?

When you changes the Existing value to null, the On-validate field trigger will fire post change trigger will not fire. At the time of execute-query post-change trigger will fire, on-validate field trigger will not fire.


351. When is PRE-QUERY trigger executed ?

When Execute-query or count-query Package procedures are invoked.

352. How do you trap the error in forms 3.0 ?

using On-Message or On-Error triggers.


353. How many pages you can in a single form ?



354. While specifying master/detail relationship between two blocks specifying the join condition is a must ? True or False. ?



355. EXIT_FORM is a restricted package procedure ?a. True b. False



356. What is the usage of an ON-INSERT,ON-DELETE and ON-UPDATE TRIGGERS ?

These triggers are executes when inserting, deleting and updating operations are performed and can be used to change the default function of insert, delete or update respectively. For Eg, instead of inserting a row in a table an existing row can be updated in the same table.


357. What are the types of Pop-up window ?

the pop-up field editor
pop-up list of values
pop-up pages.
Alert :


358. What is an SQL *FORMS ?

SQL *forms is 4GL tool for developing and executing; Oracle based interactive application.


359. How do you control the constraints in forms ?

Select the use constraint property is ON Block definition screen.


360. What is the difference between restricted and unrestricted package procedure ?

Restricted package procedure that affects the basic functions of SQL * Forms. It cannot used in all triggers except key triggers. Unrestricted package procedure that does not interfere with the basic functions of SQL * Forms it can be used in any triggers.


361. A query fetched 10 records How many times does a PRE-QUERY Trigger and POST-QUERY Trigger will get executed ?

PRE-QUERY fires once.
POST-QUERY fires 10 times.


362. Give the sequence in which triggers fired during insert operations, when the following 3 triggers are defined at the same block level ?



363. State the order in which these triggers are executed ?



364. What the PAUSE package procedure does ?

Pause suspends processing until the operator presses a function key


365. What do you mean by a page ?

Pages are collection of display information, such as constant text and graphics


366. What are the type of User Exits ?

ORACLE Precompliers user exits
OCI (ORACLE Call Interface)
Non-ORACEL user exits.
Page :


367. What is the difference between an ON-VALIDATE-FIELD trigger and a trigger ?

On-validate-field trigger fires, when the field Validation status New or changed. Post-field-trigger whenever the control leaving form the field, it will fire.


368. Can we use a restricted package procedure in ON-VALIDATE-FIELD Trigger ?



369. Is a Key startup trigger fires as result of a operator pressing a key explicitly ?



370. Can we use GO-BLOCK package in a pre-field trigger ?



371. Can we create two blocks with the same name in form 3.0 ?



372. What is Post-Block is a. ???

a. Navigational Trigger.
b. Key trigger
c. Transaction Trigger.


373. What does an on-clear-block Trigger fire?

It fires just before SQL * forms the current block.


374. Name the two files that are created when you generate the form give the filex extension ?

INP (Source File)
FRM (Executable File)


375. What package procedure used for invoke sql *plus from sql *forms ?

Host (E.g. Host (sqlplus))


376. What is the significance of PAGE 0 in forms 3.0 ?

Hide the fields for internal calculation.


377. What are the different types of key triggers ?

Function Key


378. What is the difference between a Function Key Trigger and Key Function Trigger ?

Function key triggers are associated with individual SQL*FORMS function keys You can attach Key function triggers to 10 keys or key sequences that normally do not perform any SQL * FORMS operations. These keys referred as key F0 through key F9.


379. Committed block sometimes refer to a BASE TABLE ?



380. Error_Code is a package proecdure ?

a. True b. false


381. When is cost based optimization triggered? (for DBA

It’s important to have statistics on all tables for the CBO (Cost Based Optimizer) to work correctly. If one table involved in a statement does not have statistics, Oracle has to revert to rule-based optimization for that statement. So you really want for all tables to have statistics right away; it won’t help much to just have the larger tables analyzed.
Generally, the CBO can change the execution plan when you:
1. Change statistics of objects by doing an ANALYZE;
2. Change some initialization parameters (for example: hash_join_enabled, sort_area_size, db_file_multiblock_read_count).


382. How can one optimize %XYZ% queries? (for DBA

It is possible to improve %XYZ% queries by forcing the optimizer to scan all the entries from the index instead of the table. This can be done by specifying hints. If the index is physically smaller than the table (which is usually the case) it will take less time to scan the entire index than to scan the entire table.


383. What Enter package procedure does ?

Enter Validate-data in the current validation unit.


384. Where can one find I/O statistics per table? (for DBA

The UTLESTAT report shows I/O per tablespace but one cannot see what tables in the tablespace has the most I/O. The $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catio.sql script creates a sample_io procedure and table to gather the required information. After executing the procedure, one can do a simple SELECT * FROM io_per_object; to extract the required information. For more details, look at the header comments in the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catio.sql script.


385. My query was fine last week and now it is slow. Why? (for DBA

The likely cause of this is because the execution plan has changed. Generate a current explain plan of the offending query and compare it to a previous one that was taken when the query was performing well. Usually the previous plan is not available.
Some factors that can cause a plan to change are:
. Which tables are currently analyzed? Were they previously analyzed? (ie. Was the query using RBO and now CBO?)
. Has OPTIMIZER_MODE been changed in INIT.ORA?
. Has the DEGREE of parallelism been defined/changed on any table?
. Have the tables been re-analyzed? Were the tables analyzed using estimate or compute? If estimate, what percentage was used?
. Have the statistics changed?
. Has the INIT.ORA parameter DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT been changed?
. Has the INIT.ORA parameter SORT_AREA_SIZE been changed?
. Have any other INIT.ORA parameters been changed?
. What do you think the plan should be? Run the query with hints to see if this produces the required performance.


386. Why is Oracle not using the damn index? (for DBA

This problem normally only arises when the query plan is being generated by the Cost Based Optimizer. The usual cause is because the CBO calculates that executing a Full Table Scan would be faster than accessing the table via the index.
Fundamental things that can be checked are:
. USER_TAB_COLUMNS.NUM_DISTINCT – This column defines the number of distinct values the column holds.
. USER_TABLES.NUM_ROWS – If NUM_DISTINCT = NUM_ROWS then using an index would be preferable to doing a FULL TABLE SCAN. As the NUM_DISTINCT decreases, the cost of using an index increase thereby is making the index less desirable.
. USER_INDEXES.CLUSTERING_FACTOR – This defines how ordered the rows are in the index. If CLUSTERING_FACTOR approaches the number of blocks in the table, the rows are ordered. If it approaches the number of rows in the table, the rows are randomly ordered. In such a case, it is unlikely that index entries in the same leaf block will point to rows in the same data blocks.
. Decrease the INIT.ORA parameter DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT – A higher value will make the cost of a FULL TABLE SCAN cheaper.
. Remember that you MUST supply the leading column of an index, for the index to be used (unless you use a FAST FULL SCAN or SKIP SCANNING).
. There are many other factors that affect the cost, but sometimes the above can help to show why an index is not being used by the CBO. If from checking the above you still feel that the query should be using an index, try specifying an index hint. Obtain an explain plan of the query either using TKPROF with TIMED_STATISTICS, so that one can see the CPU utilization, or with AUTOTRACE to see the statistics. Compare this to the explain plan when not using an index.


397. When should one rebuild an index? (for DBA

You can run the ‘ANALYZE INDEX VALIDATE STRUCTURE’ command on the affected indexes – each invocation of this command creates a single row in the INDEX_STATS view. This row is overwritten by the next ANALYZE INDEX command, so copy the contents of the view into a local table after each ANALYZE. The ‘badness’ of the index can then be judged by the ratio of ‘DEL_LF_ROWS’ to ‘LF_ROWS’.


388. What are the unrestricted procedures used to change the popup screen position during run time ?

Resize -View


389. What is an Alert ?

An alert is window that appears in the middle of the screen overlaying a portion of the current display.


390. Deleting a page removes information about all the fields in that page ? a. True. b. False?

a. True.

391. Two popup pages can appear on the screen at a time ?Two popup pages can appear on the screen at a time ? a. True. b. False?

a. True.


392. Classify the restricted and unrestricted procedure from the following.
a. Call
b. User-Exit
c. Call-Query
d. Up
e. Execute-Query
f. Message
g. Exit-From
h. Post
i. Break?

a. Call – unrestricted
b. User Exit – Unrestricted
c. Call_query – Unrestricted
d. Up – Restricted
e. Execute Query – Restricted
f. Message – Restricted
g. Exit_form – Restricted
h. Post – Restricted
i. Break – Unrestricted.


393. What is an User Exits ?

A user exit is a subroutine which are written in programming languages using pro*C pro *Cobol , etc., that link into the SQL * forms executable.


394. What is a Trigger ?

A piece of logic that is executed at or triggered by a SQL *forms event.


395. What is a Package Procedure ?

A Package procedure is built in PL/SQL procedure.


398. What is the maximum size of a form ?

255 character width and 255 characters Length.


399. What is the difference between system.current_field and system.cursor_field ?

1. System.current_field gives name of the field.
2. System.cursor_field gives name of the field with block name.

400. List the system variables related in Block and Field?

1. System.block_status
2. System.current_block
3. System.current_field
4. System.current_value
5. System.cursor_block
6. System.cursor_field
7. System.field_status.


401. What are the different types of Package Procedure ?

1. Restricted package procedure.
2. Unrestricted package procedure.


402. What are the types of TRIGGERS ?

1. Navigational Triggers.
2. Transaction Triggers.


403. Identify package function from the following ? 1. Error-Code
2. Break
3. Call
4. Error-text
5. Form-failure
6. Form-fatal
7. Execute-query
8. Anchor View
9. Message_code?

1. Error_Code
2. Error_Text
3. Form_Failure
4. Form_Fatal
5. Message_Code


403. Can you attach an lov to a field at run-time? if yes, give the build-in name.?

Yes. Set_item_proprety


404. Is it possible to attach same library to more than one form?



405. Can you attach an lov to a field at design time?



406. List the windows event triggers available in Forms 4.0?



407. What are the triggers associated with the image item?

When-Image-activated(Fires when the operator double clicks on an image Items)
When-image-pressed(fires when the operator selects or deselects the image item)


408. What is a visual attribute?

Visual Attributes are the font, color and pattern characteristics of objects that operators see and intract with in our application.


409. How many maximum number of radio buttons can you assign to a radio group?

Unlimited no of radio buttons can be assigned to a radio group

410. How do you pass the parameters from one form to another form?

To pass one or more parameters to a called form, the calling form must perform the following steps in a trigger or user named routine execute the create_parameter_list built-in function to programmatically. Create a parameter list to execute the add parameter built-in procedure to add one or more parameters list. Execute the call_form, New_form or run_product built_in procedure and include the name or id of the parameter list to be passed to the called form.


411. What is a Layout Editor?

The Layout Editor is a graphical design facility for creating and arranging items and boilerplate text and graphics objects in your application’s interface.


412. List the Types of Items?

Text item.
Chart item.
Check box.
Display item.
Image item.
List item.
Radio Group.
User Area item.


413. List system variables available in forms 4.0, and not available in forms 3.0?

System Date_threshold


414. What are the display styles of an alert?

Stop, Caution, note


415. What built-in is used for showing the alert during run-time?



416. What built-in is used for changing the properties of the window dynamically?



417. What are the different types of windows?

Root window, secondary window.

418. What is a predefined exception available in forms 4.0?

Raise form_trigger_failure


419. What is a radio Group?

Radio groups display a fixed no of options that are mutually Exclusive. User can select one out of n number of options.


419. What are the different type of a record group?

Query record group
Static record group
Non query record group


420. What are the menu items that oracle forms 4.0 supports?

Plain, Check,Radio, Separator, Magic


421. Give the equivalent term in forms 4.0 for the following. Page, Page 0?

Page – Canvas-View
Page 0 – Canvas-view null.


422. What triggers are associated with the radio group?

Only when-radio-changed trigger associated with radio group
Visual Attributes.


423. What are the triggers associated with a check box?

Only When-checkbox-activated Trigger associated with a Check box.


424.Can you attach an alert to a field?



425. Can a root window be made modal?



426. What is a list item?

It is a list of text elements.


427. List some built-in routines used to manipulate images in image_item?



428. Can you change the alert messages at run-time?

If yes, give the name of the built-in to change the alert messages at run-time. Yes. Set_alert_property.

429. What is the built-in used to get and set lov properties during run-time?

Record Group


430. What is the built-in routine used to count the no of rows in a group?

Get_group _row_count
System Variables


431. Give the Types of modules in a form?



432. Write the Abbreviation for the following File Extension 1. FMB 2. MMB 3. PLL?

FMB —– Form Module Binary.
MMB —– Menu Module Binary.
PLL —— PL/SQL Library Module Binary.


433. List the built-in routine for controlling window during run-time?



434. List the built-in routine for controlling window during run-time?



435. What is the built-in function used for finding the alert?



436. List the editors availables in forms 4.0?

Default editor
User_defined editors
system editors.


437. What buil-in routines are used to display editor dynamicaly?

Edit_text item

438. What is an Lov?

A list of values is a single or multi column selection list displayed in a pop-up window


439. What is a record Group?

A record group is an internal oracle forms data structure that has a similar column/row frame work to a database table


440. Give built-in routine related to a record groups?

Create_group (Function)


441. List the built-in routines for the controlling canvas views during run-time?



442. System.effective_date system variable is read only True/False?



443. What are the built_in used to trapping errors in forms 4?

Error_type return character
Error_code return number
Error_text return char
Dbms_error_code return no.
Dbms_error_text return char

444. What is Oracle Financials? (for DBA

Oracle Financials products provide organizations with solutions to a wide range of long- and short-term accounting system issues. Regardless of the size of the business, Oracle Financials can meet accounting management demands with:

  • Oracle Assets: Ensures that an organization’s property and equipment investment is accurate and that the correct asset tax accounting strategies are chosen.
  • Oracle General Ledger: Offers a complete solution to journal entry, budgeting, allocations, consolidation, and financial reporting needs.
  • Oracle Inventory: Helps an organization make better inventory decisions by minimizing stock and maximizing cash flow.
  • Oracle Order Entry: Provides organizations with a sophisticated order entry system for managing customer commitments.
  • Oracle Payables: Lets an organization process more invoices with fewer staff members and tighter controls. Helps save money through maximum discounts, bank float, and prevention of duplicate payment.
  • Oracle Personnel: Improves the management of employee- related issues by retaining and making available every form of personnel data.
  • Oracle Purchasing: Improves buying power, helps negotiate bigger discounts, eliminates paper flow, increases financial controls, and increases productivity.
  • Oracle Receivables:. Improves cash flow by letting an organization process more payments faster, without off-line research. Helps correctly account for cash, reduce outstanding receivables, and improve collection effectiveness.
  • Oracle Revenue Accounting Gives an organization timely and accurate revenue and flexible commissions reporting.
  • Oracle Sales Analysis: Allows for better forecasting, planning. and reporting of sales information.


445. What are the design facilities available in forms 4.0?

Default Block facility.
Layout Editor.
Menu Editor.
Object Lists.
Property Sheets.
PL/SQL Editor.
Tables Columns Browser.
Built-ins Browser.


446. What is the most important module in Oracle Financials? (for DBA

The General Ledger (GL) module is the basis for all other Oracle Financial modules. All other modules provide information to it. If you implement Oracle Financials, you should switch your current GL system first.GL is relatively easy to implement. You should go live with it first to give your implementation team a chance to be familiar with Oracle Financials.

447. What are the types of canvas-views?

Content View, Stacked View.

448. What is the MultiOrg and what is it used for? (for DBA

MultiOrg or Multiple Organizations Architecture allows multiple operating units and their relationships to be defined within a single installation of Oracle Applications. This keeps each operating unit’s transaction data separate and secure.
Use the following query to determine if MuliOrg is intalled:
select multi_org_flag from fnd_product_groups;

449. What is the difference between Fields and FlexFields? (for DBA

A field is a position on a form that one uses to enter, view, update, or delete information. A field prompt describes each field by telling what kind of information appears in the field, or alternatively, what kind of information should be entered in the field.
A flexfield is an Oracle Applications field made up of segments. Each segment has an assigned name and a set of valid values. Oracle Applications uses flexfields to capture information about your organization. There are two types of flexfields: key flexfields and descriptive flexfields.

450. Explain types of Block in forms4.0?

Base table Blocks.
Control Blocks.
1. A base table block is one that is associated with a specific database table or view.
2. A control block is a block that is not associated with a database table. ITEMS

451. What is an Alert?

An alert is a modal window that displays a message notifies the operator of some application condition

455. What are the built-in routines is available in forms 4.0 to create and manipulate a parameter list?


456 .What is a record Group?

A record group is an internal oracle forms data structure that has a similar column/row frame work to a database table

457 What is a Navigable item?

A navigable item is one that operators can navigate to with the keyboard during default navigation, or that Oracle forms can navigate to by executing a navigational built-in procedure.

458. What is a library in Forms 4.0?

A library is a collection of Pl/SQL program units, including user named procedures, functions & packages

460. How image_items can be populate to field in forms 4.0?

A fetch from a long raw database column PL/Sql assignment to executing the read_image_file built_in procedure to get an image from the file system.

461. What is the content view and stacked view?

A content view is the “Base” view that occupies the entire content pane of the window in which it is displayed. A stacked view differs from a content canvas view in that it is not the base view for the window to which it is assigned

462. What is a Check Box?

A Check Box is a two state control that indicates whether a certain condition or value is on or off, true or false. The display state of a check box is always either “checked” or “unchecked”.

463. What is a canvas-view?

A canvas-view is the background object on which you layout the interface items (text-items, check boxes, radio groups, and so on.) and boilerplate objects that operators see and interact with as they run your form. At run-time, operators can see only those items that have been assigned to a specific canvas. Each canvas, in term, must be displayed in a specific window.

464. Explain the following file extension related to library?

The library pll files is a portable design file comparable to an fmb form file
The library lib file is a plat form specific, generated library file comparable to a fmx form file
The pld file is Txt format file and can be used for source controlling your library files Parameter

465. Explain the usage of WHERE CURRENT OF clause in cursors ?

WHERE CURRENT OF clause in an UPDATE,DELETE statement refers to the latest row fetched from a cursor. Database Triggers

466. Name the tables where characteristics of Package, procedure and functions are stored ?

User_objects, User_Source and User_error.

467. Explain the two type of Cursors ?

There are two types of cursors, Implicit Cursor and Explicit Cursor. PL/SQL uses Implicit Cursors for queries. User defined cursors are called Explicit Cursors. They can be declared and used.

468. What are two parts of package ?

The two parts of package are PACKAGE SPECIFICATION & PACKAGE BODY. Package Specification contains declarations that are global to the packages and local to the schema. Package Body contains actual procedures and local declaration of the procedures and cursor declarations.

469. What are two virtual tables available during database trigger execution ?

The table columns are referred as OLD.column_name and NEW.column_name.
For triggers related to INSERT only NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to UPDATE only OLD.column_name NEW.column_name values only available.
For triggers related to DELETE only OLD.column_name values only available.

470. What is Fine Grained Auditing? (for DBA

Fine Grained Auditing (DBMS_FGA) allows auditing records to be generated when certain rows are selected from a table. A list of defined policies can be obtained from DBA_AUDIT_POLICIES. Audit records are stored in DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL. Look at this example:
o Add policy on table with autiting condition…
execute dbms_fga.add_policy(‘HR’, ‘EMP’, ‘policy1’, ‘deptno > 10’);
o Must ANALYZE, this feature works with CBO (Cost Based Optimizer)
analyze table EMP compute statistics;
select * from EMP where c1 = 11; — Will trigger auditing
select * from EMP where c1 = 09; — No auditing
o Now we can see the statments that triggered the auditing condition…
select sqltext from sys.fga_log$;
delete from sys.fga_log$;


471. What is a package ? What are the advantages of packages ? What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ?

The PRAGMA EXECPTION_INIT tells the complier to associate an exception with an oracle error. To get an error message of a specific oracle error. e.g. PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (exception name, oracle error number)


472. What is Fine Grained Access Control? (for DBA

See question “What is a Virtual Private Database”.


473. What is a Virtual Private Database? (for DBA

Oracle 8i introduced the notion of a Virtual Private Database (VPD). A VPD offers Fine-Grained Access Control (FGAC) for secure separation of data. This ensures that users only have access to data that pertains to them. Using this option, one could even store multiple companies’ data within the same schema, without them knowing about it. VPD configuration is done via the DBMS_RLS (Row Level Security) package. Select from SYS.V$VPD_POLICY to see existing VPD configuration.


474. What is Raise_application_error ?

Raise_application_error is a procedure of package DBMS_STANDARD which allows to issue an user_defined error messages from stored sub-program or database trigger.


475. What is Oracle Label Security? (for DBA

Oracle Label Security (formerly called Trusted Oracle MLS RDBMS) uses the VPD (Virtual Private Database) feature of Oracle8i to implement row level security. Access to rows are restricted according to a user’s security sensitivity tag or label. Oracle Label Security is configured, controlled and managed from the Policy Manager, an Enterprise Manager-based GUI utility.


476. Give the structure of the procedure ?

PROCEDURE name (parameter list…..)
local variable declarations
Executable statements.
exception handlers


477. What is OEM (Oracle Enterprise Manager)? (for DBA

OEM is a set of systems management tools provided by Oracle Corporation for managing the Oracle environment. It provides tools to monitor the Oracle environment and automate tasks (both one-time and repetitive in nature) to take database administration a step closer to “Lights Out” management.


478. Question What is PL/SQL ?

PL/SQL is a procedural language that has both interactive SQL and procedural programming language constructs such as iteration, conditional branching.


479. What are the components of OEM? (for DBA

Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) has the following components:
. Management Server (OMS): Middle tier server that handles communication with the intelligent agents. The OEM Console connects to the management server to monitor and configure the Oracle enterprise.
. Console: This is a graphical interface from where one can schedule jobs, events, and monitor the database. The console can be opened from a Windows workstation, Unix XTerm (oemapp command) or Web browser session (oem_webstage).
. Intelligent Agent (OIA): The OIA runs on the target database and takes care of the execution of jobs and events scheduled through the Console.

480. What happens if a procedure that updates a column of table X is called in a database trigger of the same table ?

Mutation of table occurs.


481. Is it possible to use Transaction control Statements such a ROLLBACK or COMMIT in Database Trigger ? Why ?

It is not possible. As triggers are defined for each table, if you use COMMIT of ROLLBACK in a trigger, it affects logical transaction processing.


482. How many types of database triggers can be specified on a table ? What are they ?

Insert Update Delete
Before Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Row o.k. o.k. o.k.
Before Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
After Statement o.k. o.k. o.k.
If FOR EACH ROW clause is specified, then the trigger for each Row affected by the statement.
If WHEN clause is specified, the trigger fires according to the returned Boolean value.


483. What are the modes of parameters that can be passed to a procedure ?

IN,OUT,IN-OUT parameters.


484. Where the Pre_defined_exceptions are stored ?

In the standard package.
Procedures, Functions & Packages ;


485. Write the order of precedence for validation of a column in a table ?
I. done using Database triggers.
ii. done using Integarity Constraints.?

I & ii.


486. Give the structure of the function ?

FUNCTION name (argument list …..) Return datatype is
local variable declarations
executable statements
execution handlers


487. Explain how procedures and functions are called in a PL/SQL block ?

Function is called as part of an expression.
sal := calculate_sal (‘a822’);
procedure is called as a PL/SQL statement
calculate_bonus (‘A822’);


488. What are advantages fo Stored Procedures?

Extensibility,Modularity, Reusability, Maintainability and one time compilation.


489. What is an Exception ? What are types of Exception ?

Exception is the error handling part of PL/SQL block. The types are Predefined and user defined. Some of Predefined exceptions are.

490. What are the PL/SQL Statements used in cursor processing ?

DECLARE CURSOR cursor name, OPEN cursor name, FETCH cursor name INTO or Record types, CLOSE cursor name.


491. What are the components of a PL/SQL Block ?

Declarative part, Executable part and Exception part.
Datatypes PL/SQL


492. What is a database trigger ? Name some usages of database trigger ?

Database trigger is stored PL/SQL program unit associated with a specific database table. Usages are Audit data modifications, Log events transparently, Enforce complex business rules Derive column values automatically, Implement complex security authorizations. Maintain replicate tables.


493. What is a cursor ? Why Cursor is required ?

Cursor is a named private SQL area from where information can be accessed. Cursors are required to process rows individually for queries returning multiple rows.


494. What is a cursor for loop ?

Cursor for loop implicitly declares %ROWTYPE as loop index,opens a cursor, fetches rows of values from active set into fields in the record and closes when all the records have been processed.
eg. FOR emp_rec IN C1 LOOP
salary_total := salary_total +emp_rec sal;


495. What will happen after commit statement ?

Cursor C1 is
Select empno,
ename from emp;
open C1; loop
Fetch C1 into
Exit When
C1 %notfound;—–
end loop;
The cursor having query as SELECT …. FOR UPDATE gets closed after COMMIT/ROLLBACK.
The cursor having query as SELECT…. does not get closed even after COMMIT/ROLLBACK.


496. How packaged procedures and functions are called from the following?
a. Stored procedure or anonymous block
b. an application program such a PRC *C, PRO* COBOL
c. SQL *PLUS??

variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
variable := PACKAGE NAME.FUNCTION NAME (arguments);
c. EXECUTE PACKAGE NAME.PROCEDURE if the procedures does not have any out/in-out parameters. A function can not be called.


497. What is a stored procedure ?

A stored procedure is a sequence of statements that perform specific function.


498. What are the components of a PL/SQL block ?

A set of related declarations and procedural statements is called block.


499. What is difference between a PROCEDURE & FUNCTION ?

A FUNCTION is always returns a value using the return statement.
A PROCEDURE may return one or more values through parameters or may not return at all.

500. What is difference between a Cursor declared in a procedure and Cursor declared in a package specification ?

A cursor declared in a package specification is global and can be accessed by other procedures or procedures in a package.
A cursor declared in a procedure is local to the procedure that can not be accessed by other procedures.


501. What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL ?

%ISOPEN – to check whether cursor is open or not
% ROWCOUNT – number of rows fetched/updated/deleted.
% FOUND – to check whether cursor has fetched any row. True if rows are fetched.
% NOT FOUND – to check whether cursor has fetched any row. True if no rows are featched.
These attributes are proceeded with SQL for Implicit Cursors and with Cursor name for Explicit Cursors.


502. What are % TYPE and % ROWTYPE ? What are the advantages of using these over datatypes?

% TYPE provides the data type of a variable or a database column to that variable.
% ROWTYPE provides the record type that represents a entire row of a table or view or columns selected in the cursor.
The advantages are :
I. Need not know about variable’s data type
ii. If the database definition of a column in a table changes, the data type of a variable changes accordingly.


503. What is difference between % ROWTYPE and TYPE RECORD ?

% ROWTYPE is to be used whenever query returns a entire row of a table or view.
TYPE rec RECORD is to be used whenever query returns columns of different table or views and variables.
E.g. TYPE r_emp is RECORD (eno emp.empno% type,ename emp ename %type );
e_rec emp% ROWTYPE
cursor c1 is select empno,deptno from emp;
e_rec c1 %ROWTYPE.


504. What are the different types of PL/SQL program units that can be defined and stored in ORACLE database ?

Procedures and Functions,Packages and Database Triggers.


505. What are the advantages of having a Package ?

Increased functionality (for example,global package variables can be declared and used by any proecdure in the package) and performance (for example all objects of the package are parsed compiled, and loaded into memory once)


506. What are the uses of Database Trigger ?

Database triggers can be used to automatic data generation, audit data modifications, enforce complex Integrity constraints, and customize complex security authorizations.


507. What is a Procedure ?

A Procedure consist of a set of SQL and PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform a set of related tasks.


508. What is a Package ?

A Package is a collection of related procedures, functions, variables and other package constructs together as a unit in the database.

509. What is difference between Procedures and Functions ?

A Function returns a value to the caller where as a Procedure does not.


510. What is Database Trigger ?

A Database Trigger is procedure (set of SQL and PL/SQL statements) that is automatically executed as a result of an insert in,update to, or delete from a table.


511. Can the default values be assigned to actual parameters?



512. Can a primary key contain more than one columns?



513. What is an UTL_FILE.What are different procedures and functions associated with it?

UTL_FILE is a package that adds the ability to read and write to operating system files. Procedures associated with it are FCLOSE, FCLOSE_ALL and 5 procedures to output data to a file PUT, PUT_LINE, NEW_LINE, PUTF, FFLUSH.PUT, FFLUSH.PUT_LINE,FFLUSH.NEW_LINE. Functions associated with it are FOPEN, ISOPEN.



Using ORACLE PRECOMPILERS, SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks can be contained inside 3GL programs written in C,C++,COBOL,PASCAL, FORTRAN,PL/1 AND ADA. The Precompilers are known as Pro*C,Pro*Cobol,… This form of PL/SQL is known as embedded pl/sql,the language in which pl/sql is embedded is known as the host language. The prcompiler translates the embedded SQL and pl/sql ststements into calls to the precompiler runtime library.The output must be compiled and linked with this library to creater an executable.


515. Differentiate between TRUNCATE and DELETE?

TRUNCATE deletes much faster than DELETE
It is a DDL statement
It is a DML statement
It is a one way trip,cannot ROLLBACK
One can Rollback
Doesn’t have selective features (where clause)
Doesn’t fire database triggers
It requires disabling of referential constraints.


516. What is difference between a formal and an actual parameter?

The variables declared in the procedure and which are passed, as arguments are called actual, the parameters in the procedure declaration. Actual parameters contain the values that are passed to a procedure and receive results. Formal parameters are the placeholders for the values of actual parameters

517. What should be the return type for a cursor variable.Can we use a scalar data type as return type?

The return type for a cursor must be a record type.It can be declared explicitly as a user-defined or %ROWTYPE can be used. eg TYPE t_studentsref IS REF CURSOR RETURN students%ROWTYPE


518. What are different Oracle database objects?



519. What is difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?

SUBSTR returns a specified portion of a string eg SUBSTR(‘BCDEF’,4) output BCDE INSTR provides character position in which a pattern is found in a string. eg INSTR(‘ABC-DC-F’,’-‘,2) output 7 (2nd occurence of ‘-‘)


520. Display the number value in Words?

SQL> select sal, (to_char(to_date(sal,’j’), ‘jsp’))
from emp;
the output like,
——— —————————————-
800 eight hundred
1600 one thousand six hundred
1250 one thousand two hundred fifty
If you want to add some text like, Rs. Three Thousand only.
SQL> select sal “Salary “,
(‘ Rs. ‘|| (to_char(to_date(sal,’j’), ‘Jsp’))|| ‘ only.’))
“Sal in Words” from emp
Salary Sal in Words
——- ———————————————–
800 Rs. Eight Hundred only.
1600 Rs. One Thousand Six Hundred only.
1250 Rs. One Thousand Two Hundred Fifty only.


521. What is difference between SQL and SQL*PLUS?

SQL*PLUS is a command line tool where as SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool. Its a command line tool that allows user to type SQL commands to be executed directly against an Oracle database. SQL is a language used to query the relational database(DML,DCL,DDL). SQL*PLUS commands are used to format query result, Set options, Edit SQL commands and PL/SQL.


522. What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES?

Self join-Its a join foreign key of a table references the same table. Outer Join–Its a join condition used where One can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don’t satisfy the join condition.
Equi-join–Its a join condition that retrieves rows from one or more tables in which one or more columns in one table are equal to one or more columns in the second table.


523. What a SELECT FOR UPDATE cursor represent.?

SELECT……FROM……FOR……UPDATE[OF column-reference][NOWAIT]
The processing done in a fetch loop modifies the rows that have been retrieved by the cursor. A convenient way of modifying the rows is done by a method with two parts: the FOR UPDATE clause in the cursor declaration, WHERE CURRENT OF CLAUSE in an UPDATE or declaration statement.


524. What are various privileges that a user can grant to another user?



525. Display the records between two range?

select rownum, empno, ename from emp where rowid in (select rowid from emp where rownum <=&upto minus select rowid from emp where rownum<&Start);


526. minvalue.sql Select the Nth lowest value from a table?

select level, min(‘col_name’) from my_table where level = ‘&n’ connect by prior (‘col_name’) < ‘col_name’)
group by level;
Given a table called emp with the following columns:
— id number
— name varchar2(20)
— sal number

— For the second lowest salary:
— select level, min(sal) from emp
— where level=2
— connect by prior sal < sal
— group by level

527. What is difference between Rename and Alias?

Rename is a permanent name given to a table or column whereas Alias is a temporary name given to a table or column which do not exist once the SQL statement is executed.


528. Difference between an implicit & an explicit cursor.?

only one row. However,queries that return more than one row you must declare an explicit cursor or use a cursor FOR loop. Explicit cursor is a cursor in which the cursor name is explicitly assigned to a SELECT statement via the CURSOR…IS statement. An implicit cursor is used for all SQL statements Declare, Open, Fetch, Close. An explicit cursors are used to process multirow SELECT statements An implicit cursor is used to process INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and single row SELECT. .INTO statements.


529. What is a OUTER JOIN?

Outer Join–Its a join condition used where you can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don’t satisfy the join condition.


530. What is a cursor?

Oracle uses work area to execute SQL statements and store processing information PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information A cursor is a mechanism used to fetch more than one row in a Pl/SQl block.


531. What is the purpose of a cluster?

Oracle does not allow a user to specifically locate tables, since that is a part of the function of the RDBMS. However, for the purpose of increasing performance, oracle allows a developer to create a CLUSTER. A CLUSTER provides a means for storing data from different tables together for faster retrieval than if the table placement were left to the RDBMS.


532. What is OCI. What are its uses?

Oracle Call Interface is a method of accesing database from a 3GL program. Uses–No precompiler is required,PL/SQL blocks are executed like other DML statements.
The OCI library provides
–functions to parse SQL statemets
–bind input variables
–bind output variables
–execute statements
–fetch the results


533. How you open and close a cursor variable.Why it is required?

OPEN cursor variable FOR SELECT…Statement
CLOSE cursor variable In order to associate a cursor variable with a particular SELECT statement OPEN syntax is used. In order to free the resources used for the query CLOSE statement is used.


534. Display Odd/ Even number of records?

Odd number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,1) in (select rowid, mod(rownum,2) from emp);
Even number of records:
select * from emp where (rowid,0) in (select rowid, mod(rownum,2) from emp)


535. What are various constraints used in SQL?


536. Can cursor variables be stored in PL/SQL tables.If yes how. If not why?

No, a cursor variable points a row which cannot be stored in a two-dimensional PL/SQL table.


537. Difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUND?

NO DATA FOUND is an exception raised only for the SELECT….INTO statements when the where clause of the querydoes not match any rows. When the where clause of the explicit cursor does not match any rows the %NOTFOUND attribute is set to TRUE instead.


538. Can you use a commit statement within a database trigger?



539. What WHERE CURRENT OF clause does in a cursor?

SELECT num_credits INTO v_numcredits FROM classes
WHERE dept=123 and course=101;
UPDATE students
FHKO;;;;;;;;;SET current_credits=current_credits+v_numcredits


540. There is a string 120000 12 0 .125 , how you will find the position of the decimal place?

INSTR(‘120000 12 0 .125′,1,’.’)
output 13


541. What are different modes of parameters used in functions and procedures?



542. How you were passing cursor variables in PL/SQL 2.2?

In PL/SQL 2.2 cursor variables cannot be declared in a package.This is because the storage for a cursor variable has to be allocated using Pro*C or OCI with version 2.2, the only means of passing a cursor variable to a PL/SQL block is via bind variable or a procedure parameter.


543. When do you use WHERE clause and when do you use HAVING clause?

HAVING clause is used when you want to specify a condition for a group function and it is written after GROUP BY clause. The WHERE clause is used when you want to specify a condition for columns, single row functions except group functions and it is written before GROUP BY clause if it is used.


544. Difference between procedure and function.?

Functions are named PL/SQL blocks that return a value and can be called with arguments procedure a named block that can be called with parameter. A procedure all is a PL/SQL statement by itself, while a Function call is called as part of an expression.


545. Which is more faster – IN or EXISTS?

EXISTS is more faster than IN because EXISTS returns a Boolean value whereas IN returns a value.

546. What is syntax for dropping a procedure and a function .Are these operations possible?

Drop Procedure procedure_name
Drop Function function_name


547. How will you delete duplicating rows from a base table?

delete from table_name where rowid not in (select max(rowid) from table group by duplicate_values_field_name); or delete duplicate_values_field_name dv from table_name ta where rowid <(select min(rowid) from table_name tb where ta.dv=tb.dv);


548. Difference between database triggers and form triggers?

-Data base trigger(DBT) fires when a DML operation is performed on a data base table. Form trigger(FT) Fires when user presses a key or navigates between fields on the screen
-Can be row level or statement level No distinction between row level and statement level.
-Can manipulate data stored in Oracle tables via SQL Can manipulate data in Oracle tables as well as variables in forms.
-Can be fired from any session executing the triggering DML statements. Can be fired only from the form that define the trigger.
-Can cause other database triggers to fire.Can cause other database triggers to fire, but not other form triggers.


549. What is a cursor for loop?

Cursor For Loop is a loop where oracle implicitly declares a loop variable, the loop index that of the same record type as the cursor’s record.


550. How you will avoid duplicating records in a query?



551. What is a view ?

A view is stored procedure based on one or more tables, it’s a virtual table.


552. What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints?

A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY whereas there can be any number of UNIQUE keys. The columns that compose PK are automatically define NOT NULL, whereas a column that compose a UNIQUE is not automatically defined to be mandatory must also specify the column is NOT NULL.


553. What is use of a cursor variable? How it is defined?

A cursor variable is associated with different statements at run time, which can hold different values at run time. Static cursors can only be associated with one run time query. A cursor variable is reference type (like a pointer in C).
Declaring a cursor variable:
TYPE type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type type_name is the name of the reference type,return_type is a record type indicating the types of the select list that will eventually be returned by the cursor variable.

554. How do you find the numbert of rows in a Table ?

A bad answer is count them (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM table_name)
A good answer is :-
‘By generating SQL to ANALYZE TABLE table_name COUNT STATISTICS by querying Oracle System Catalogues (e.g. USER_TABLES or ALL_TABLES).
The best answer is to refer to the utility which Oracle released which makes it unnecessary to do ANALYZE TABLE for each Table individually.


555. What is the maximum buffer size that can be specified using the DBMS_OUTPUT.ENABLE function?



556. What are cursor attributes?



557. There is a % sign in one field of a column. What will be the query to find it?

” Should be used before ‘%’.


558. What is ON DELETE CASCADE ?

When ON DELETE CASCADE is specified ORACLE maintains referential integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign key values if a referenced primary or unique key value is removed.


559. What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table ?



560. What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE ?

TRUNCATE commits after deleting entire table i.e., can not be rolled back. Database triggers do not fire on TRUNCATEDELETE allows the filtered deletion. Deleted records can be rolled back or committed.Database triggers fire on DELETE.


561. What is a transaction ?

Transaction is logical unit between two commits and commit and rollback.


562. What are the advantages of VIEW ?

To protect some of the columns of a table from other users.To hide complexity of a query.To hide complexity of calculations.


563. How will you a activate/deactivate integrity constraints ?

The integrity constraints can be enabled or disabled by ALTER TABLE ENABLE constraint/DISABLE constraint.


564. Where the integrity constraints are stored in Data Dictionary ?

The integrity constraints are stored in USER_CONSTRAINTS.


565. What is the Subquery ?

Sub query is a query whose return values are used in filtering conditions of the main query.

566. How to access the current value and next value from a sequence ? Is it possible to access the current value in a session before accessing next value ?

Sequence name CURRVAL, Sequence name NEXTVAL.It is not possible. Only if you access next value in the session, current value can be accessed.


567. What are the usage of SAVEPOINTS ?value in a session before accessing next value ?

SAVEPOINTS are used to subdivide a transaction into smaller parts. It enables rolling back part of a transaction. Maximum of five save points are allowed.


568. What is ROWID ?in a session before accessing next value ?

ROWID is a pseudo column attached to each row of a table. It is 18 character long, blockno, rownumber are the components of ROWID.


569. Explain Connect by Prior ?in a session before accessing next value ?

Retrieves rows in hierarchical order.e.g. select empno, ename from emp where.


570. How many LONG columns are allowed in a table ? Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY ?

Only one LONG columns is allowed. It is not possible to use LONG column in WHERE or ORDER BY clause.


571. What is Referential Integrity ?

Maintaining data integrity through a set of rules that restrict the values of one or more columns of the tables based on the values of primary key or unique key of the referenced table.


572. What is a join ? Explain the different types of joins ?

Join is a query which retrieves related columns or rows from multiple tables.Self Join – Joining the table with itself.Equi Join – Joining two tables by equating two common columns.Non-Equi Join – Joining two tables by equating two common columns.Outer Join – Joining two tables in such a way that query can also retrieve rows that do not have corresponding join value in the other table.


573. If an unique key constraint on DATE column is created, will it validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE ?

It won’t, Because SYSDATE format contains time attached with it.

574. How does one stop and start the OMS? (for DBA

Use the following command sequence to stop and start the OMS (Oracle Management Server):
oemctl start oms
oemctl status oms sysman/oem_temp
oemctl stop oms sysman/oem_temp
Windows NT/2000 users can just stop and start the required services. The default OEM administrator is “sysman” with a password of “oem_temp”.
NOTE: Use command oemctrl instead of oemctl for Oracle 8i and below.


575. What is an Integrity Constraint ?

Integrity constraint is a rule that restricts values to a column in a table.


576. How does one create a repository? (for DBA

For OEM v2 and above, start the Oracle Enterprise Manager Configuration Assistant (emca on Unix) to create and configure the management server and repository. Remember to setup a backup for the repository database after creating it.


577. If a View on a single base table is manipulated will the changes be reflected on the base table ?

If changes are made to the tables which are base tables of a view will the changes be reference on the view.


578. The following describes means to create a OEM V1.x (very old!!!) repository on WindowsNT:

. Create a tablespace that would hold the repository data. A size between 200- 250 MB would be ideal. Let us call it Dummy_Space.
. Create an Oracle user who would own this repository. Assign DBA, SNMPAgent, Exp_Full_database, Imp_Full_database roles to this user. Lets call this user Dummy_user. Assign Dummy_Space as the default tablespace.
. Create an operating system user with the same name as the Oracle username. I.e. Dummy_User. Add ‘Log on as a batch job’ under advanced rights in User manager.
. Fire up Enterprise manager and log in as Dummy_User and enter the password. This would trigger the creation of the repository. From now on, Enterprise manager is ready to accept jobs.


579. What is a database link ?

Database Link is a named path through which a remote database can be accessed.


580. How does one list one’s databases in the OEM Console? (for DBA

Follow these steps to discover databases and other services from the OEM Console:
1. Ensure the GLOBAL_DBNAME parameter is set for all databases in your LISTENER.ORA file (optional). These names will be listed in the OEM Console. Please note that names entered are case sensitive. A portion of a listener.ora file:
2. Start the Oracle Intelligent Agent on the machine you want to discover. See section “How does one start the Oracle Intelligent Agent?”.
3. Start the OEM Console, navigate to menu “Navigator/ Discover Nodes”. The OEM Discovery Wizard will guide you through the process of discovering your databases and other services.


581. What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence ?

CYCLE specifies that the sequence continues to generate values after reaching either maximum or minimum value. After pan ascending sequence reaches its maximum value, it generates its minimum value. After a descending sequence reaches its minimum, it generates its maximum.NO CYCLE specifies that the sequence cannot generate more values after reaching its maximum or minimum value.


582. What is correlated sub-query ?

Correlated sub query is a sub query which has reference to the main query.


583. What are the data types allowed in a table ?



584. What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2 ? What is the maximum SIZE allowed for each type ?

CHAR pads blank spaces to the maximum length. VARCHAR2 does not pad blank spaces. For CHAR it is 255 and 2000 for VARCHAR2.


585. Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted? If Yes under what conditions ?

A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only one base table if the view is based on columns from one or more tables then insert, update and delete is not possible.

586. What are the different types of Coordinations of the Master with the Detail block?



587. Use the ADD_GROUP_COLUMN function to add a column to a record group that was created at design time? I) TRUE II)FALSE



588. Use the ADD_GROUP_ROW procedure to add a row to a static record group? I) TRUE II)FALSE



589. maxvalue.sql Select the Nth Highest value from a table?

select level, max(‘col_name’) from my_table where level = ‘&n’ connect by prior (‘col_name’) > ‘col_name’)
group by level;
Given a table called emp with the following columns:
— id number
— name varchar2(20)
— sal number

— For the second highest salary:
— select level, max(sal) from emp
— where level=2
— connect by prior sal > sal
— group by level


590. Find out nth highest salary from emp table?

For Eg:-
Enter value for n: 2


591. Suppose a customer table is having different columns like customer no, payments.What will be the query to select top three max payments?

SELECT customer_no, payments from customer C1
WHERE 3<=(SELECT COUNT(*) from customer C2
WHERE C1.payment <= C2.payment)


592. How you will avoid your query from using indexes?

Where emp_no+’ ‘=12345;
i.e you have to concatenate the column name with space within codes in the where condition.
SELECT /*+ FULL(a) */ ename, emp_no from emp
where emp_no=1234;
i.e using HINTS


593. What utility is used to create a physical backup?

Either rman or alter tablespace begin backup will do..

594. What are the Back ground processes in Oracle and what are they.

This is one of the most frequently asked question.There are basically 9 Processes but in a general system we need to mention the first five background processes.They do the house keeping activities for the Oracle and are common in any system.
The various background processes in oracle are
a) Data Base Writer(DBWR) :: Data Base Writer Writes Modified blocks from Database buffer cache to Data Files.This is required since the data is not written whenever a transaction is commited.
b)LogWriter(LGWR) :: LogWriter writes the redo log entries to disk. Redo Log data is generated in redo log buffer of SGA. As transaction commits and log buffer fills, LGWR writes log entries into a online redo log file.
c) System Monitor(SMON) :: The System Monitor performs instance recovery at instance startup.This is useful for recovery from system failure
d)Process Monitor(PMON) :: The Process Monitor peforms process recovery when user Process fails. Pmon Clears and Frees resources that process was using.
e) CheckPoint(CKPT) :: At Specified times, all modified database buffers in SGA are written to data files by DBWR at Checkpoints and Updating all data files and control files of database to indicate the most recent checkpoint
f)Archieves(ARCH) :: The Archiver copies online redo log files to archival storal when they are busy.
g) Recoveror(RECO) :: The Recoveror is used to resolve the distributed transaction in network
h) Dispatcher (Dnnn) :: The Dispatcher is useful in Multi Threaded Architecture
i) Lckn :: We can have upto 10 lock processes for inter instance locking in parallel sql.


595. How many types of Sql Statements are there in Oracle

There are basically 6 types of sql statments.They are
a) Data Defination Language(DDL) :: The DDL statments define and maintain objects and drop objects.
b) Data Manipulation Language(DML) :: The DML statments manipulate database data.
c) Transaction Control Statements :: Manage change by DML
d) Session Control :: Used to control the properties of current session enabling and disabling roles and changing .e.g :: Alter Statements,Set Role
e) System Control Statements :: Change Properties of Oracle Instance .e.g:: Alter System
f) Embedded Sql :: Incorporate DDL,DML and T.C.S in Programming Language.e.g:: Using the Sql Statements in languages such as ‘C’, Open,Fetch, execute and close


596. What is a Transaction in Oracle

A transaction is a Logical unit of work that compromises one or more SQL Statements executed by a single User. According to ANSI, a transaction begins with first executable statment and ends when it is explicitly commited or rolled back.


597. Key Words Used in Oracle

The Key words that are used in Oracle are ::
a) Commiting :: A transaction is said to be commited when the transaction makes permanent changes resulting from the SQL statements.
b) Rollback :: A transaction that retracts any of the changes resulting from SQL statements in Transaction.
c) SavePoint :: For long transactions that contain many SQL statements, intermediate markers or savepoints are declared. Savepoints can be used to divide a transactino into smaller points.
d) Rolling Forward :: Process of applying redo log during recovery is called rolling forward.
e) Cursor :: A cursor is a handle ( name or a pointer) for the memory associated with a specific stament. A cursor is basically an area allocated by Oracle for executing the Sql Statement. Oracle uses an implicit cursor statement for Single row query and Uses Explcit cursor for a multi row query.
f) System Global Area(SGA) :: The SGA is a shared memory region allocated by the Oracle that contains Data and control information for one Oracle Instance.It consists of Database Buffer Cache and Redo log Buffer.
g) Program Global Area (PGA) :: The PGA is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for server process.
g) Database Buffer Cache :: Databese Buffer of SGA stores the most recently used blocks of datatbase data.The set of database buffers in an instance is called Database Buffer Cache.
h) Redo log Buffer :: Redo log Buffer of SGA stores all the redo log entries.
i) Redo Log Files :: Redo log files are set of files that protect altered database data in memory that has not been written to Data Files. They are basically used for backup when a database crashes.
j) Process :: A Process is a ‘thread of control’ or mechansim in Operating System that executes series of steps.

598. What are Procedure,functions and Packages

Procedures and functions consist of set of PL/SQL statements that are grouped together as a unit to solve a specific problem or perform set of related tasks.
Procedures do not Return values while Functions return one One Value Packages :: Packages Provide a method of encapsulating and storing related procedures, functions, variables and other Package Contents


599. What are Database Triggers and Stored Procedures

Database Triggers :: Database Triggers are Procedures that are automatically executed as a result of insert in, update to, or delete from table.
Database triggers have the values old and new to denote the old value in the table before it is deleted and the new indicated the new value that will be used. DT are useful for implementing complex business rules which cannot be enforced using the integrity rules.We can have the trigger as Before trigger or After Trigger and at Statement or Row level. e.g:: operations insert,update ,delete 3 before ,after 3*2 A total of 6 combinatons
At statment level(once for the trigger) or row level( for every execution ) 6 * 2 A total of 12. Thus a total of 12 combinations are there and the restriction of usage of 12 triggers has been lifted from Oracle 7.3 Onwards.
Stored Procedures :: Stored Procedures are Procedures that are stored in Compiled form in the database.The advantage of using the stored procedures is that many users can use the same procedure in compiled and ready to use format.


600. How many Integrity Rules are there and what are they

There are Three Integrity Rules. They are as follows ::
a) Entity Integrity Rule :: The Entity Integrity Rule enforces that the Primary key cannot be Null
b) Foreign Key Integrity Rule :: The FKIR denotes that the relationship between the foreign key and the primary key has to be enforced.When there is data in Child Tables the Master tables cannot be deleted.
c) Business Integrity Rules :: The Third Intigrity rule is about the complex business processes which cannot be implemented by the above 2 rules.


601. What are the Various Master and Detail Relation ships.

The various Master and Detail Relationship are
a) NonIsolated :: The Master cannot be deleted when a child is exisiting
b) Isolated :: The Master can be deleted when the child is exisiting
c) Cascading :: The child gets deleted when the Master is deleted.


602. What are the Various Block Coordination Properties

The various Block Coordination Properties are
a) Immediate Default Setting. The Detail records are shown when the Master Record are shown.
b) Deffered with Auto Query Oracle Forms defer fetching the detail records until the operator navigates to the detail block.
c) Deffered with No Auto Query The operator must navigate to the detail block and explicitly execute a query

603. What is in all those X$ tables? (for DBA

The following list attempts to describe some x$ tables. The list may not be complete or accurate, but represents an attempt to figure out what information they contain. One should generally not write queries against these tables as they are internal to Oracle, and Oracle may change them without any prior notification.

X$K2GTE2 Kernel 2 Phase Commit Global Transaction Entry Fixed Table
X$K2GTE Kernel 2 Phase Commit Global Transaction Entry Fixed Table
X$BH Buffer headers contain information describing the current contents of a piece of the buffer cache
X$KCBCBH Cache Buffer Current Buffer Header Fixed Table. It can predict the potential loss of decreasing the number of database buffers. The db_block_lru_statistics parameter has to be set to true to gather information in this table.
X$KCVFH File Header Fixed Table
X$KDNCE SGA Cache Entry Fixed Table
X$KDNST Sequence Cache Statistics Fixed Table
X$KDXHS Histogram structure Fixed Table
X$KDXST Statistics collection Fixed Table
X$KGHLU One-row summary of LRU statistics for the shared pool
X$KGLBODY Derived from X$KGLOB (col kglhdnsp = 2)
X$KGLCLUSTER Derived from X$KGLOB (col kglhdnsp = 5)
X$KGLINDEX Derived from X$KGLOB (col kglhdnsp = 4)
X$KGLLC Latch Clean-up state for library cache objects Fixed Table
X$KGLPN Library cache pin Fixed Table
X$KGLTABLE Derived from X$KGLOB (col kglhdnsp = 1)
X$KGLTR Library Cache Translation Table entry Fixed Table
X$KGLTRIGGER Derived from X$KGLOB (col kglhdnsp = 3)
X$KGLXS Library Cache Access Table
X$KKMMD Fixed table to look at what databases are mounted and their status
X$KKSBV Cursor Cache Bind Variables
X$KSMSP Each row represents a piece of memory in the shared pool
X$KSQDN Global database name
X$KSQST Enqueue statistics by type
X$KSUCF Cost function for each Kernel Profile (join to X$KSUPL)
X$KSUPL Resource Limit for each Kernel Profile
X$KSURU Resource Usage for each Kernel Profile (join with X$KSUPL)
X$KSQST Gets and waits for different types of enqueues
X$KTTVS Indicate tablespace that has valid save undo segments
X$KVII Internal instance parameters set at instance initialization
X$KVIS Oracle Data Block (size_t type) variables
X$KVIT Instance internal flags, variables and parameters that can change during the life of an instance
X$KXFPCDS Client Dequeue Statistics
X$KXFPCMS Client Messages Statistics
X$KZDOS Represent an os role as defined by the operating system
X$KZSRO Security state Role: List of enabled roles
X$LE Lock Element: each PCM lock that is used by the buffer cache (gc_db_locks)
X$MESSAGES Displays all the different messages that can be sent to the Background processes
X$NLS_PARAMETERS NLS database parameters

Handy X$table queries
Some handy queries based on the X$ memory tables:
. Largest # blocks you can write at any given time:
select kviival write_batch_size
from x$kvii where kviitag = ‘kcbswc’;
. See the gets and waits for different types of enqueues:
select * from x$ksqst
where ksqstget > 0;
Oracle Kernel Subsystems
Listed below are some of the important subsystems in the Oracle kernel. This table might help you to read those dreaded trace files and internal messages. For example, if you see messages like this, you will at least know where they come from: OPIRIP: Uncaught error 447. Error stack:
KCF: write/open error block=0x3e800 online=1


OPI Oracle Program Interface
KK Compilation Layer – Parse SQL, compile PL/SQL
KX Execution Layer – Bind and execute SQL and PL/SQL
K2 Distributed Execution Layer – 2PC handling
NPI Network Program Interface
KZ Security Layer – Validate privs
KQ Query Layer
RPI Recursive Program Interface
KA Access Layer
KD Data Layer
KT Transaction Layer
KC Cache Layer
KS Services Layer
KJ Lock Manager Layer
KG Generic Layer
KV Kernel Variables (eg. x$KVIS and X$KVII)
S or ODS Operating System Dependencies


604. What are the Different Optimisation Techniques

The Various Optimisation techniques are
a) Execute Plan :: we can see the plan of the query and change it accordingly based on the indexes
b) Optimizer_hint ::
Select /*+ First_Rows */ Deptno,Dname,Loc,Rowid from dept
where (Deptno > 25)
c) Optimize_Sql ::
By setting the Optimize_Sql = No, Oracle Forms assigns a single cursor for all SQL statements.This slow downs the processing because for evertime the SQL must be parsed whenver they are executed.
f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_sql = No
d) Optimize_Tp ::
By setting the Optimize_Tp= No, Oracle Forms assigns seperate cursor only for each query SELECT statement. All other SQL statements reuse the cursor.
f45run module = my_firstform userid = scott/tiger optimize_Tp = No

605. How does one change an Oracle user’s password?(for DBA

Issue the following SQL command:
ALTER USER <username> IDENTIFIED BY <new_password>;
From Oracle8 you can just type “password” from SQL*Plus, or if you need to change another user’s password, type “password user_name”. Look at this example:
SQL> password
Changing password for SCOTT
Old password:
New password:
Retype new password:


606. How does one create and drop database users?

Look at these examples:
IDENTIFIED BY tiger — Assign password
DEFAULT TABLESACE tools — Assign space for table and index segments
TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp; — Assign sort space
DROP USER scott CASCADE; — Remove user
After creating a new user, assign the required privileges:
GRANT DBA TO scott; — Make user a DB Administrator
Remember to give the user some space quota on its tablespaces:


607. Who created all these users in my database?/ Can I drop this user? (for DBA

Oracle creates a number of default database users or schemas when a new database is created. Below are a few of them:
Oracle Data Dictionary/ Catalog
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/sql.bsq and various cat*.sql scripts
Can password be changed: Yes (Do so right after the database was created)
Can user be dropped: NO
The default DBA user name (please do not use SYS)
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/sql.bsq
Can password be changed: Yes (Do so right after the database was created)
Can user be dropped: NO
Stored outlines for optimizer plan stability
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/sql.bsq
Can password be changed: Yes (Do so right after the database was created)
Can user be dropped: NO
Training/ demonstration users containing the popular EMP and DEPT tables
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/utlsampl.sql
Can password be changed: Yes
Can user be dropped: YES – Drop users cascade from all production environments
HR/HR (Human Resources), OE/OE (Order Entry), SH/SH (Sales History).
Training/ demonstration users containing the popular EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables
Created by: ?/demo/schema/mksample.sql
Can password be changed: Yes
Can user be dropped: YES – Drop users cascade from all production environments
Oracle interMedia (ConText Cartridge) administrator user
Created by: ?/ctx/admin/dr0csys.sql
Oracle Trace server
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/otrcsvr.sql
Oracle Intelligent agent
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/catsnmp.sql, called from catalog.sql
Can password be changed: Yes – put the new password in snmp_rw.ora file
Can user be dropped: YES – Only if you do not use the Intelligent Agents
Object Relational Data (ORD) User used by Time Series, etc.
Created by: ?/ord/admin/ordinst.sql
Object Relational Data (ORD) User used by Time Series, etc
Created by: ?/ord/admin/ordinst.sql
Oracle Dynamic Services and Syndication Server
Created by: ?/ds/sql/dssys_init.sql
Oracle Spatial administrator user
Created by: ?/ord/admin/ordinst.sql
Used for users who do not authenticate in Aurora/ORB
Created by: ?/javavm/install/init_orb.sql called from ?/javavm/install/initjvm.sql
Oracle Statistics Package (STATSPACK) that supersedes UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT
Created by: ?/rdbms/admin/statscre.sql
Remember to change the passwords for the SYS and SYSTEM users immediately after installation!
Except for the user SYS, there should be no problem altering these users to use a different default and temporary tablespace.


608. How does one enforce strict password control? (for DBA

By default Oracle’s security is not extremely good. For example, Oracle will allow users to choose single character passwords and passwords that match their names and userids. Also, passwords don’t ever expire. This means that one can hack an account for years without ever locking the user.
From Oracle8 one can manage passwords through profiles. Some of the things that one can restrict:
. FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS – failed login attempts before the account is locked
. PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME – limits the number of days the same password can be used for authentication
. PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME – number of days before a password can be reused
. PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX – number of password changes required before the current password can be reused
. PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME – number of days an account will be locked after maximum failed login attempts
. PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME – number of days after the grace period begins during which a warning is issued and login is allowed
. PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION – password complexity verification script
Look at this simple example:
ALTER USER scott PROFILE my_profile;


609. How does one switch to another user in Oracle? (for DBA

Users normally use the “connect” statement to connect from one database user to another. However, DBAs can switch from one user to another without a password. Of course it is not advisable to bridge Oracle’s security, but look at this example: SQL> select password from dba_users where username=’SCOTT’;
SQL> alter user scott identified by lion;
User altered.

SQL> connect scott/lion

REM Do whatever you like…
SQL> connect system/manager

SQL> alter user scott identified by values ‘F894844C34402B67’;
User altered.
SQL> connect scott/tiger
Note: Also see the su.sql script in the Useful Scripts and Sample Programs Page.

610. What are snap shots and views

Snapshots are mirror or replicas of tables. Views are built using the columns from one or more tables. The Single Table View can be updated but the view with multi table cannot be updated


611. What are the OOPS concepts in Oracle.

Oracle does implement the OOPS concepts. The best example is the Property Classes. We can categorise the properties by setting the visual attributes and then attach the property classes for the objects. OOPS supports the concepts of objects and classes and we can consider the peroperty classes as classes and the items as objects


612. What is the difference between candidate key, unique key and primary key

Candidate keys are the columns in the table that could be the primary keys and the primary key is the key that has been selected to identify the rows. Unique key is also useful for identifying the distinct rows in the table.)


613. What is concurrency

Cuncurrency is allowing simultaneous access of same data by different users. Locks useful for accesing the database are
a) Exclusive
The exclusive lock is useful for locking the row when an insert,update or delete is being done.This lock should not be applied when we do only select from the row.
b) Share lock
We can do the table as Share_Lock as many share_locks can be put on the same resource.


614. Previleges and Grants

Previleges are the right to execute a particulare type of SQL statements. e.g :: Right to Connect, Right to create, Right to resource Grants are given to the objects so that the object might be accessed accordingly.The grant has to be given by the owner of the object.

615. Table Space,Data Files,Parameter File, Control Files

Table Space :: The table space is useful for storing the data in the database.When a database is created two table spaces are created.
a) System Table space :: This data file stores all the tables related to the system and dba tables
b) User Table space :: This data file stores all the user related tables
We should have seperate table spaces for storing the tables and indexes so that the access is fast.
Data Files :: Every Oracle Data Base has one or more physical data files.They store the data for the database.Every datafile is associated with only one database.Once the Data file is created the size cannot change.To increase the size of the database to store more data we have to add data file.
Parameter Files :: Parameter file is needed to start an instance.A parameter file contains the list of instance configuration parameters e.g.::
db_block_buffers = 500
db_name = ORA7
db_domain = u.s.acme lang
Control Files :: Control files record the physical structure of the data files and redo log files
They contain the Db name, name and location of dbs, data files ,redo log files and time stamp.


616. Physical Storage of the Data

The finest level of granularity of the data base are the data blocks.
Data Block :: One Data Block correspond to specific number of physical database space
Extent :: Extent is the number of specific number of contigious data blocks.
Segments :: Set of Extents allocated for Extents. There are three types of Segments
a) Data Segment :: Non Clustered Table has data segment data of every table is stored in cluster data segment
b) Index Segment :: Each Index has index segment that stores data
c) Roll Back Segment :: Temporarily store ‘undo’ information


617. What are the Pct Free and Pct Used

Pct Free is used to denote the percentage of the free space that is to be left when creating a table. Similarly Pct Used is used to denote the percentage of the used space that is to be used when creating a table
eg.:: Pctfree 20, Pctused 40


618. What is Row Chaining

The data of a row in a table may not be able to fit the same data block.Data for row is stored in a chain of data blocks .


619. What is a 2 Phase Commit

Two Phase commit is used in distributed data base systems. This is useful to maintain the integrity of the database so that all the users see the same values. It contains DML statements or Remote Procedural calls that reference a remote object. There are basically 2 phases in a 2 phase commit.
a) Prepare Phase :: Global coordinator asks participants to prepare
b) Commit Phase :: Commit all participants to coordinator to Prepared, Read only or abort Reply

620. What is the difference between deleting and truncating of tables

Deleting a table will not remove the rows from the table but entry is there in the database dictionary and it can be retrieved But truncating a table deletes it completely and it cannot be retrieved.


621. What are mutating tables

When a table is in state of transition it is said to be mutating. eg :: If a row has been deleted then the table is said to be mutating and no operations can be done on the table except select.


622. What are Codd Rules

Codd Rules describe the ideal nature of a RDBMS. No RDBMS satisfies all the 12 codd rules and Oracle Satisfies 11 of the 12 rules and is the only Rdbms to satisfy the maximum number of rules.


623. What is Normalisation

Normalisation is the process of organising the tables to remove the redundancy.There are mainly 5 Normalisation rules.
a) 1 Normal Form :: A table is said to be in 1st Normal Form when the attributes are atomic
b) 2 Normal Form :: A table is said to be in 2nd Normal Form when all the candidate keys are dependant on the primary key
c) 3rd Normal Form :: A table is said to be third Normal form when it is not dependant transitively


624. What is the Difference between a post query and a pre query

A post query will fire for every row that is fetched but the pre query will fire only once.


625. Deleting the Duplicate rows in the table

We can delete the duplicate rows in the table by using the Rowid


626. Can U disable database trigger? How?

Yes. With respect to table
[[ DISABLE all_trigger ]]

627. What is pseudo columns ? Name them?

A pseudocolumn behaves like a table column, but is not actually stored in the table. You can select from pseudocolumns, but you cannot insert, update, or delete their values. This section describes these pseudocolumns:


628. How many columns can table have?

The number of columns in a table can range from 1 to 254.


629. Is space acquired in blocks or extents ?

In extents .


630. what is clustered index?

In an indexed cluster, rows are stored together based on their cluster key values . Can not applied for HASH.


631. what are the datatypes supported By oracle (INTERNAL)?

Varchar2, Number,Char , MLSLABEL.


632. What are attributes of cursor?



633. Can you use select in FROM clause of SQL select ?


634. Which trigger are created when master -detail rela?

master delete property
* NON-ISOLATED (default)
a) on check delete master
b) on clear details
c) on populate details
a) on clear details
b) on populate details
a) per-delete
b) on clear details
c) on populate details


635. which system variables can be set by users?



636. What are object group?

An object group is a container for a group of objects. You define an object group when you want to package related objects so you can copy or reference them in another module.


637. What are referenced objects?

Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object, except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object.


638. Can you store objects in library?

Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object, except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object.


639. Is forms 4.5 object oriented tool ? why?

yes , partially. 1) PROPERTY CLASS – inheritance property 2) OVERLOADING : procedures and functions.

640. Can you issue DDL in forms?

yes, but you have to use FORMS_DDL.
Referencing allows you to create objects that inherit their functionality and appearance from other objects. Referencing an object is similar to copying an object, except that the resulting reference object maintains a link to its source object. A reference object automatically inherits any changes that have been made to the source object when you open or regenerate the module that contains the reference object. Any string expression up to 32K:
– a literal
– an expression or a variable representing the text of a block of dynamically created PL/SQL code
– a DML statement or
– a DDL statement
The statement you pass to FORMS_DDL may not contain bind variable references in the string, but the values of bind variables can be concatenated into the string before passing the result to FORMS_DDL.


641. What is SECURE property?

– Hides characters that the operator types into the text item. This setting is typically used for password protection.


642. What are the types of triggers and how the sequence of firing in text item

Triggers can be classified as Key Triggers, Mouse Triggers ,Navigational Triggers.
Key Triggers :: Key Triggers are fired as a result of Key action.e.g :: Key-next-field, Key-up,Key-Down
Mouse Triggers :: Mouse Triggers are fired as a result of the mouse navigation.e.g. When-mouse-button-presed,when-mouse-doubleclicked,etc
Navigational Triggers :: These Triggers are fired as a result of Navigation. E.g : Post-Text-item,Pre-text-item.
We also have event triggers like when ?new-form-instance and when-new-block-instance.
We cannot call restricted procedures like go_to(?my_block.first_item?) in the Navigational triggers
But can use them in the Key-next-item.
The Difference between Key-next and Post-Text is an very important question. The key-next is fired as a result of the key action while the post text is fired as a result of the mouse movement. Key next will not fire unless there is a key event. The sequence of firing in a text item are as follows ::
a) pre – text
b) when new item
c) key-next
d) when validate
e) post text


643. Can you store pictures in database? How?

Yes , in long Raw datatype.


644. What are property classes ? Can property classes have trigger?

Property class inheritance is a powerful feature that allows you to quickly define objects that conform to your own interface and functionality standards. Property classes also allow you to make global changes to applications quickly. By simply changing the definition of a property class, you can change the definition of all objects that inherit properties from that class.
Yes . All type of triggers .

645. If you have property class attached to an item and you have same trigger written for the item . Which will fire first?

Item level trigger fires , If item level trigger fires, property level trigger won’t fire. Triggers at the lowest level are always given the first preference. The item level trigger fires first and then the block and then the Form level trigger.


646. What are record groups ? * Can record groups created at run-time?

A record group is an internal Oracle Forms data structure that has a column/row framework similar to a database table. However, unlike database tables, record groups are separate objects that belong to the form module in which they are defined. A record group can have an unlimited number of columns of type CHAR, LONG, NUMBER, or DATE provided that the total number of columns does not exceed 64K. Record group column names cannot exceed 30 characters.
Programmatically, record groups can be used whenever the functionality offered by a two-dimensional array of multiple data types is desirable.
Query Record Group A query record group is a record group that has an associated SELECT statement. The columns in a query record group derive their default names, data types, and lengths from the database columns referenced in the SELECT statement. The records in a query record group are the rows retrieved by the query associated with that record group.
Non-query Record Group A non-query record group is a group that does not have an associated query, but whose structure and values can be modified programmatically at runtime.
Static Record Group A static record group is not associated with a query; rather, you define its structure and row values at design time, and they remain fixed at runtime.


647. What are ALERT?

An ALERT is a modal window that displays a message notifiying operator of some application condition.


648. Can a button have icon and lable at the same time ?



649. What is mouse navigate property of button?

When Mouse Navigate is True (the default), Oracle Forms performs standard navigation to move the focus to the item when the operator activates the item with the mouse.
When Mouse Navigate is set to False, Oracle Forms does not perform navigation (and the resulting validation) to move to the item when an operator activates the item with the mouse.


650. What is FORMS_MDI_WINDOW?

forms run inside the MDI application window. This property is useful for calling a form from another one.

651. What are timers ? when when-timer-expired does not fire?

The When-Timer-Expired trigger can not fire during trigger, navigation, or transaction processing.


652. Can object group have a block?

Yes , object group can have block as well as program units.


653. How many types of canvases are there.

There are 2 types of canvases called as Content and Stack Canvas. Content canvas is the default and the one that is used mostly for giving the base effect. Its like a plate on which we add items and stacked canvas is used for giving 3 dimensional effect.


654. What are user-exits?

It invokes 3GL programs.


655. Can you pass values to-and-fro from foreign function ? how ?

Yes . You obtain a return value from a foreign function by assigning the return value to an Oracle Forms variable or item. Make sure that the Oracle Forms variable or item is the same data type as the return value from the foreign function.
After assigning an Oracle Forms variable or item value to a PL/SQL variable, pass the PL/SQL variable as a parameter value in the PL/SQL interface of the foreign function. The PL/SQL variable that is passed as a parameter must be a valid PL/SQL data type; it must also be the appropriate parameter type as defined in the PL/SQL interface.


656. What is IAPXTB structure ?

The entries of Pro * C and user exits and the form which simulate the proc or user_exit are stored in IAPXTB table in d/b.


657. Can you call WIN-SDK thruo’ user exits?


658. Does user exits supports DLL on MSWINDOWS ?



659. What is path setting for DLL?

Make sure you include the name of the DLL in the FORMS45_USEREXIT variable of the ORACLE.INI file, or rename the DLL to F45XTB.DLL. If you rename the DLL to F45XTB.DLL, replace the existing F45XTB.DLL in the ORAWINBIN directory with the new F45XTB.DLL.


660. How is mapping of name of DLL and function done?

The dll can be created using the Visual C++ / Visual Basic Tools and then the dll is put in the path that is defined the registery.


661. what is precompiler?

It is similar to C precompiler directives.


662. Can you connect to non – oracle datasource ? How?

Yes .


663. what are key-mode and locking mode properties? level ?

Key Mode : Specifies how oracle forms uniquely identifies rows in the database.This is property includes for application that will run against NON-ORACLE datasources .
Key setting unique (default.)

Locking mode :
Specifies when Oracle Forms should attempt to obtain database locks on rows that correspond to queried records in the form. a) immediate b) delayed


664. What are savepoint mode and cursor mode properties ? level?

Specifies whether Oracle Forms should issue savepoints during a session. This property is included primarily for applications that will run against non-ORACLE data sources. For applications that will run against ORACLE, use the default setting.
Cursor mode – define cursur state across transaction Open/close.

665. Can you replace default form processing ? How ?


666. What is transactional trigger property?

Identifies a block as transactional control block. i.e. non – database block that oracle forms should manage as transactional block.(NON-ORACLE datasource) default – FALSE.


667. What is OLE automation ?

OLE automation allows an OLE server application to expose a set of commands and functions that can be invoked from an OLE container application. OLE automation provides a way for an OLE container application to use the features of an OLE server application to manipulate an OLE object from the OLE container environment. (FORMS_OLE)


668. What does invoke built-in do?

This procedure invokes a method.
(object obj_type,
method VARCHAR2,
list list_type := 0);
object Is an OLE2 Automation Object.
method Is a method (procedure) of the OLE2 object.
list Is the name of an argument list assigned to the OLE2.CREATE_ARGLIST function.


669. What are OPEN_FORM,CALL_FORM,NEW_FORM? diff?

CALL_FORM : It calls the other form. but parent remains active, when called form completes the operation , it releases lock and control goes back to the calling form.
When you call a form, Oracle Forms issues a savepoint for the called form. If the CLEAR_FORM function causes a rollback when the called form is current, Oracle Forms rolls back uncommitted changes to this savepoint.
OPEN_FORM : When you call a form, Oracle Forms issues a savepoint for the called form. If the CLEAR_FORM function causes a rollback when the called form is current, Oracle Forms rolls back uncommitted changes to this savepoint.
NEW_FORM : Exits the current form and enters the indicated form. The calling form is terminated as the parent form. If the calling form had been called by a higher form, Oracle Forms keeps the higher call active and treats it as a call to the new form. Oracle Forms releases memory (such as database cursors) that the terminated form was using.
Oracle Forms runs the new form with the same Runform options as the parent form. If the parent form was a called form, Oracle Forms runs the new form with the same options as the parent form.


670. What is call form stack?

When successive forms are loaded via the CALL_FORM procedure, the resulting module hierarchy is known as the call form stack.

671. Can u port applictions across the platforms? how?

Yes we can port applications across platforms.Consider the form developed in a windows system.The form would be generated in unix system by using f45gen my_form.fmb scott/tiger


672. What is a visual attribute?

Visual attributes are the font, color, and pattern properties that you set for form and menu objects that appear in your application’s interface.


673. Diff. between VAT and Property Class? imp

Named visual attributes define only font, color, and pattern attributes; property classes can contain these and any other properties.
You can change the appearance of objects at runtime by changing the named visual attribute programmatically; property class assignment cannot be changed programmatically. When an object is inheriting from both a property class and a named visual attribute, the named visual attribute settings take precedence, and any visual attribute properties in the class are ignored.


673. Which trigger related to mouse?



674. What is Current record attribute property?

Specifies the named visual attribute used when an item is part of the current record. Current Record Attribute is frequently used at the block level to display the current row in a multi-record If you define an item-level Current Record Attribute, you can display a pre-determined item in a special color when it is part of the current record, but you cannot dynamically highlight the current item, as the input focus changes.


675. Can u change VAT at run time?

Yes. You can programmatically change an object’s named visual attribute setting to change the font, color, and pattern of the object at runtime.


676. Can u set default font in forms?

Yes. Change windows registry(regedit). Set form45_font to the desired font.


677. What is Log Switch ?

The point at which ORACLE ends writing to one online redo log file and begins writing to another is called a log switch.


678. What is On-line Redo Log?

The On-line Redo Log is a set of tow or more on-line redo files that record all committed changes made to the database. Whenever a transaction is committed, the corresponding redo entries temporarily stores in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to an on-line redo log file by the background process LGWR. The on-line redo log files are used in cyclical fashion.


679. Which parameter specified in the DEFAULT STORAGE clause of CREATE TABLESPACE cannot be altered after creating the tablespace?

All the default storage parameters defined for the tablespace can be changed using the ALTER TABLESPACE command. When objects are created their INITIAL and MINEXTENS values cannot be changed.


680. What are the steps involved in Database Startup ?

Start an instance, Mount the Database and Open the Database.


< ? Recovery Instance in involved steps the are What>

Rolling forward to recover data that has not been recorded in data files, yet has been recorded in the on-line redo log, including the contents of rollback segments. Rolling back transactions that have been explicitly rolled back or have not been committed as indicated by the rollback segments regenerated in step a. Releasing any resources (locks) held by transactions in process at the time of the failure. Resolving any pending distributed transactions undergoing a two-phase commit at the time of the instance failure.


682. Can Full Backup be performed when the database is open ?



683. What are the different modes of mounting a Database with the Parallel Server ?

Exclusive Mode If the first instance that mounts a database does so in exclusive mode, only that Instance can mount the database.
Parallel Mode If the first instance that mounts a database is started in parallel mode, other instances that are started in parallel mode can also mount the database.


684. What are the advantages of operating a database in ARCHIVELOG mode over operating it in NO ARCHIVELOG mode ?

Complete database recovery from disk failure is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode. Online database backup is possible only in ARCHIVELOG mode.


685. What are the steps involved in Database Shutdown ?

Close the Database, Dismount the Database and Shutdown the Instance.


686. What is Archived Redo Log ?

Archived Redo Log consists of Redo Log files that have archived before being reused.


687. What is Restricted Mode of Instance Startup ?

An instance can be started in (or later altered to be in) restricted mode so that when the database is open connections are limited only to those whose user accounts have been granted the RESTRICTED SESSION system privilege.

677. Can u have OLE objects in forms?



678. Can u have VBX and OCX controls in forms ?



679. What r the types of windows (Window style)?

Specifies whether the window is a Document window or a Dialog window.


680. What is OLE Activation style property?

Specifies the event that will activate the OLE containing item.


681. Can u change the mouse pointer ? How?

Yes. Specifies the mouse cursor style. Use this property to dynamically change the shape of the cursor.


682. How many types of columns are there and what are they

Formula columns :: For doing mathematical calculations and returning one value Summary Columns :: For doing summary calculations such as summations etc. Place holder Columns :: These columns are useful for storing the value in a variable


683. Can u have more than one layout in report

It is possible to have more than one layout in a report by using the additional layout option in the layout editor.


684. Can u run the report with out a parameter form

Yes it is possible to run the report without parameter form by setting the PARAM value to Null


685. What is the lock option in reports layout

By using the lock option we cannot move the fields in the layout editor outside the frame. This is useful for maintaining the fields .


686. What is Flex

Flex is the property of moving the related fields together by setting the flex property on


687. What are the minimum number of groups required for a matrix report

The minimum of groups required for a matrix report are 4 e —–

688.. What is a Synonym ?

A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit.


689. What is a Sequence ?

A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database’s tables.


690. What is a Segment ?

A segment is a set of extents allocated for a certain logical structure.


691. What is schema?

A schema is collection of database objects of a User.


692. Describe Referential Integrity ?

A rule defined on a column (or set of columns) in one table that allows the insert or update of a row only if the value for the column or set of columns (the dependent value) matches a value in a column of a related table (the referenced value). It also specifies the type of data manipulation allowed on referenced data and the action to be performed on dependent data as a result of any action on referenced data.


693. What is Hash Cluster ?

A row is stored in a hash cluster based on the result of applying a hash function to the row’s cluster key value. All rows with the same hash key value are stores together on disk.


694. What is a Private Synonyms ?

A Private Synonyms can be accessed only by the owner.


695. What is Database Link ?

A database link is a named object that describes a “path” from one database to another.

696. What is index cluster?

A cluster with an index on the cluster key.


697.What is hash cluster?

A row is stored in a hash cluster based on the result of applying a hash function to the row’s cluster key value. All rows with the same hash key value are stores together on disk.


698.When can hash cluster used?

Hash clusters are better choice when a table is often queried with equality queries. For such queries the specified cluster key value is hashed. The resulting hash key value points directly to the area on disk that stores the specified rows.


699.When can hash cluster used?

Hash clusters are better choice when a table is often queried with equality queries. For such queries the specified cluster key value is hashed. The resulting hash key value points directly to the area on disk that stores the specified rows.


700. What are the types of database links?

Private database link, public database link & network database link.


701. What is private database link?

Private database link is created on behalf of a specific user. A private database link can be used only when the owner of the link specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or in the definition of the owner’s views or procedures.


702. What is public database link?

Public database link is created for the special user group PUBLIC. A public database link can be used when any user in the associated database specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition.


703. What is network database link?

Network database link is created and managed by a network domain service. A network database link can be used when any user of any database in the network specifies a global object name in a SQL statement or object definition.


704. What is data block?

Oracle database’s data is stored in data blocks. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical database space on disk.


705. How to define data block size?

A data block size is specified for each Oracle database when the database is created. A database users and allocated free database space in Oracle data blocks. Block size is specified in init.ora file and cannot be changed latter.


706. What is row chaining?

In circumstances, all of the data for a row in a table may not be able to fit in the same data block. When this occurs, the data for the row is stored in a chain of data block (one or more) reserved for that segment.


707. What is an extent?

An extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks, obtained in a single allocation and used to store a specific type of information.

708. What are the different types of segments?

Data segment, index segment, rollback segment and temporary segment.


709. What is a data segment?

Each non-clustered table has a data segment. All of the table’s data is stored in the extents of its data segment. Each cluster has a data segment. The data of every table in the cluster is stored in the cluster’s data segment.


709. What is an index segment?

Each index has an index segment that stores all of its data.


710. What is rollback segment?

A database contains one or more rollback segments to temporarily store “undo” information.


711. What are the uses of rollback segment?

To generate read-consistent database information during database recovery and to rollback uncommitted transactions by the users.


712. What is a temporary segment?

Temporary segments are created by Oracle when a SQL statement needs a temporary work area to complete execution. When the statement finishes execution, the temporary segment extents are released to the system for future use.


713. What is a datafile?

Every Oracle database has one or more physical data files. A database’s data files contain all the database data. The data of logical database structures such as tables and indexes is physically stored in the data files allocated for a database.


714. What are the characteristics of data files?

A data file can be associated with only one database. Once created a data file can’t change size. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace.


715. What is a redo log?

The set of redo log files for a database is collectively known as the database redo log.


716. What is the function of redo log?

The primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data.


717. What is the use of redo log information?

The information in a redo log file is used only to recover the database from a system or media failure prevents database data from being written to a database’s data files.


718. What does a control file contains?

– Database name
– Names and locations of a database’s files and redolog files.
– Time stamp of database creation.


719. What is the use of control file?

When an instance of an Oracle database is started, its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. It is also used in database recovery.

720. Is it possible to split the print reviewer into more than one region?



721. Is it possible to center an object horizontally in a repeating frame that has a variable horizontal size?



722. For a field in a repeating frame, can the source come from the column which does not exist in the data group which forms the base for the frame?



723. Can a field be used in a report without it appearing in any data group?



724. The join defined by the default data link is an outer join yes or no?



725. Can a formula column referred to columns in higher group?



726. Can a formula column be obtained through a select statement?



727. Is it possible to insert comments into sql statements return in the data model editor?



728. Is it possible to disable the parameter from while running the report?



729. When a form is invoked with call_form, Does oracle forms issues a save point?


730. Explain the difference between a hot backup and a cold backup and the benefits associated with each.

A hot backup is basically taking a backup of the database while it is still up and running and it must be in archive log mode. A cold backup is taking a backup of the database while it is shut down and does not require being in archive log mode. The benefit of taking a hot backup is that the database is still available for use while the backup is occurring and you can recover the database to any point in time. The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process. In addition, since you are taking cold backups the database does not require being in archive log mode and thus there will be a slight performance gain as the database is not cutting archive logs to disk.


731. You have just had to restore from backup and do not have any control files. How would you go about bringing up this database?

I would create a text based backup control file, stipulating where on disk all the data files where and then issue the recover command with the using backup control file clause.


732. How do you switch from an init.ora file to a spfile?

Issue the create spfile from pfile command.


732. Explain the difference between a data block, an extent and a segment.

A data block is the smallest unit of logical storage for a database object. As objects grow they take chunks of additional storage that are composed of contiguous data blocks. These groupings of contiguous data blocks are called extents. All the extents that an object takes when grouped together are considered the segment of the database object.


733. Give two examples of how you might determine the structure of the table DEPT.

Use the describe command or use the dbms_metadata.get_ddl package.


734. Where would you look for errors from the database engine?

In the alert log.


735. Compare and contrast TRUNCATE and DELETE for a table.

Both the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a DDL operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback. The delete command, on the other hand, is a DML operation, which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete.


736. Give the reasoning behind using an index.

Faster access to data blocks in a table.


737. Give the two types of tables involved in producing a star schema and the type of data they hold.

Fact tables and dimension tables. A fact table contains measurements while dimension tables will contain data that will help describe the fact tables.


738. What type of index should you use on a fact table?

A Bitmap index.


739. Give two examples of referential integrity constraints.

A primary key and a foreign key.


740. A table is classified as a parent table and you want to drop and re-create it. How would you do this without affecting the children tables?

Disable the foreign key constraint to the parent, drop the table, re-create the table, enable the foreign key constraint.


741. Explain the difference between ARCHIVELOG mode and NOARCHIVELOG mode and the benefits and disadvantages to each.

ARCHIVELOG mode is a mode that you can put the database in for creating a backup of all transactions that have occurred in the database so that you can recover to any point in time. NOARCHIVELOG mode is basically the absence of ARCHIVELOG mode and has the disadvantage of not being able to recover to any point in time. NOARCHIVELOG mode does have the advantage of not having to write transactions to an archive log and thus increases the performance of the database slightly.

742. What command would you use to create a backup control file?

Alter database backup control file to trace.


743. Give the stages of instance startup to a usable state where normal users may access it.

STARTUP NOMOUNT – Instance startup
STARTUP MOUNT – The database is mounted
STARTUP OPEN – The database is opened


744. What column differentiates the V$ views to the GV$ views and how?

The INST_ID column which indicates the instance in a RAC environment the information came from.


745. How would you go about generating an EXPLAIN plan?

Create a plan table with utlxplan.sql.
Use the explain plan set statement_id = ‘tst1’ into plan_table for a SQL statement
Look at the explain plan with utlxplp.sql or utlxpls.sql


746. How would you go about increasing the buffer cache hit ratio?

Use the buffer cache advisory over a given workload and then query the v$db_cache_advice table. If a change was necessary then I would use the alter system set db_cache_size command.


747. Explain an ORA-01555

You get this error when you get a snapshot too old within rollback. It can usually be solved by increasing the undo retention or increasing the size of rollbacks. You should also look at the logic involved in the application getting the error message.


748. Explain the difference between $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_BASE.

ORACLE_BASE is the root directory for oracle. ORACLE_HOME located beneath ORACLE_BASE is where the oracle products reside.


749. How would you determine the time zone under which a database was operating?

select DBTIMEZONE from dual;


750. Explain the use of setting GLOBAL_NAMES equal to TRUE.

Setting GLOBAL_NAMES dictates how you might connect to a database. This variable is either TRUE or FALSE and if it is set to TRUE it enforces database links to have the same name as the remote database to which they are linking.


751. What command would you use to encrypt a PL/SQL application?



752. Explain the difference between a FUNCTION, PROCEDURE and PACKAGE.

A function and procedure are the same in that they are intended to be a collection of PL/SQL code that carries a single task. While a procedure does not have to return any values to the calling application, a function will return a single value. A package on the other hand is a collection of functions and procedures that are grouped together based on their commonality to a business function or application.


753. Explain the use of table functions.

Table functions are designed to return a set of rows through PL/SQL logic but are intended to be used as a normal table or view in a SQL statement. They are also used to pipeline information in an ETL process.

754. Name three advisory statistics you can collect.

Buffer Cache Advice, Segment Level Statistics, & Timed Statistics


755. Where in the Oracle directory tree structure are audit traces placed?

In unix $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit, in Windows the event viewer


756. Explain materialized views and how they are used.

Materialized views are objects that are reduced sets of information that have been summarized, grouped, or aggregated from base tables. They are typically used in data warehouse or decision support systems.


757. When a user process fails, what background process cleans up after it?



758. What background process refreshes materialized views?

The Job Queue Processes.


759. How would you determine what sessions are connected and what resources they are waiting for?



760. Describe what redo logs are.

Redo logs are logical and physical structures that are designed to hold all the changes made to a database and are intended to aid in the recovery of a database.


761. How would you force a log switch?



762. Give two methods you could use to determine what DDL changes have been made.

You could use Logminer or Streams


763. What does coalescing a tablespace do?

Coalescing is only valid for dictionary-managed tablespaces and de-fragments space by combining neighboring free extents into large single extents.


764. What is the difference between a TEMPORARY tablespace and a PERMANENT tablespace?

A temporary tablespace is used for temporary objects such as sort structures while permanent tablespaces are used to store those objects meant to be used as the true objects of the database.


765. Name a tablespace automatically created when you create a database.

The SYSTEM tablespace.

766. When creating a user, what permissions must you grant to allow them to connect to the database?

Grant the CONNECT to the user.


767. How do you add a data file to a tablespace

ALTER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ADD DATAFILE <datafile_name> SIZE


768. How do you resize a data file?

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE <datafile_name> RESIZE <new_size>;


769. What view would you use to look at the size of a data file?



770. What view would you use to determine free space in a tablespace?



771. How would you determine who has added a row to a table?

Turn on fine grain auditing for the table.


772. How can you rebuild an index?



773. Explain what partitioning is and what its benefit is.

Partitioning is a method of taking large tables and indexes and splitting them into smaller, more manageable pieces.


774. You have just compiled a PL/SQL package but got errors, how would you view the errors?



775. How can you gather statistics on a table?

The ANALYZE command.


776. How can you enable a trace for a session?



777. What is the difference between the SQL*Loader and IMPORT utilities?

These two Oracle utilities are used for loading data into the database. The difference is that the import utility relies on the data being produced by another Oracle utility EXPORT while the SQL*Loader utility allows data to be loaded that has been produced by other utilities from different data sources just so long as it conforms to ASCII formatted or delimited files.


778. Name two files used for network connection to a database.


779. What is the function of Optimizer ?

The goal of the optimizer is to choose the most efficient way to execute a SQL statement.


780. What is Execution Plan ?

The combinations of the steps the optimizer chooses to execute a statement is called an execution plan.


781. Can one resize tablespaces and data files? (for DBA)

One can manually increase or decrease the size of a datafile from Oracle 7.2 using the command.
Because you can change the sizes of datafiles, you can add more space to your database without adding more datafiles. This is beneficial if you are concerned about reaching the maximum number of datafiles allowed in your database.
Manually reducing the sizes of datafiles allows you to reclaim unused space in the database. This is useful for correcting errors in estimations of space requirements.
Also, datafiles can be allowed to automatically extend if more space is required. Look at the following command:
DATAFILE ‘c:\ora_apps\pcs\pcsdata1.dbf’ SIZE 3M
NEXT 10240


782. What is SAVE POINT ?

For long transactions that contain many SQL statements, intermediate markers or savepoints can be declared which can be used to divide a transaction into smaller parts. This allows the option of later rolling back all work performed from the current point in the transaction to a declared savepoint within the transaction.


783. What are the values that can be specified for OPTIMIZER MODE Parameter ?



784. Can one rename a tablespace? (for DBA)

No, this is listed as Enhancement Request 148742. Workaround:
Export all of the objects from the tablespace
Drop the tablespace including contents
Recreate the tablespace
Import the objects


785. What is RULE-based approach to optimization ?

Choosing an executing planbased on the access paths available and the ranks of these access paths.


786. What are the values that can be specified for OPTIMIZER_GOAL parameter of the ALTER SESSION Command ? )



787. How does one create a standby database? (for DBA)

While your production database is running, take an (image copy) backup and restore it on duplicate hardware. Note that an export will not work!!!
On your standby database, issue the following commands:
On systems prior to Oracle 8i, write a job to copy archived redo log files from the primary database to the standby system, and apply the redo log files to the standby database (pipe it). Remember the database is recovering and will prompt you for the next log file to apply.
Oracle 8i onwards provide an “Automated Standby Database” feature, which will send archived, log files to the remote site via NET8, and apply then to the standby database.
When one needs to activate the standby database, stop the recovery process and activate it:


788.How does one give developers access to trace files (required as input to tkprof)? (for DBA)

The “alter session set sql_trace=true” command generates trace files in USER_DUMP_DEST that can be used by developers as input to tkprof. On Unix the default file mask for these files are “rwx r– —“.
There is an undocumented INIT.ORA parameter that will allow everyone to read (rwx r-r–) these trace files:
_trace_files_public = true
Include this in your INIT.ORA file and bounce your database for it to take effect.

789. What are the responsibilities of a Database Administrator ?

Installing and upgrading the Oracle Server and application tools. Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system. Managing primary database structures (tablespaces) Managing primary objects (table,views,indexes) Enrolling users and maintaining system security. Ensuring compliance with Oralce license agreement Controlling and monitoring user access to the database. Monitoring and optimizing the performance of the database. Planning for backup and recovery of database information. Maintain archived data on tape Backing up and restoring the database. Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical support.


790. What is a trace file and how is it created ?

Each server and background process can write an associated trace file. When an internal error is detected by a process or user process, it dumps information about the error to its trace. This can be used for tuning the database.


791. What are the roles and user accounts created automatically with the database?

DBA – role Contains all database system privileges.
SYS user account – The DBA role will be assigned to this account. All of the base tables and views for the database’s dictionary are store in this schema and are manipulated only by ORACLE. SYSTEM user account – It has all the system privileges for the database and additional tables and views that display administrative information and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are created using this username.


792. What are the minimum parameters should exist in the parameter file (init.ora) ?

DB NAME – Must set to a text string of no more than 8 characters and it will be stored inside the datafiles, redo log files and control files and control file while database creation.
DB_DOMAIN – It is string that specifies the network domain where the database is created. The global database name is identified by setting these parameters
(DB_NAME & DB_DOMAIN) CONTORL FILES – List of control filenames of the database. If name is not mentioned then default name will be used.
DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS – To determine the no of buffers in the buffer cache in SGA.
PROCESSES – To determine number of operating system processes that can be connected to ORACLE concurrently. The value should be 5 (background process) and additional 1 for each user.
ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS – List of rollback segments an ORACLE instance acquires at database startup. Also optionally LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS,LICENSE_SESSION_WARNING and LICENSE_MAX_USERS.

793. Why and when should I backup my database? (for DBA

Backup and recovery is one of the most important aspects of a DBAs job. If you lose your company’s data, you could very well lose your job. Hardware and software can always be replaced, but your data may be irreplaceable!
Normally one would schedule a hierarchy of daily, weekly and monthly backups, however consult with your users before deciding on a backup schedule. Backup frequency normally depends on the following factors:
. Rate of data change/ transaction rate
. Database availability/ Can you shutdown for cold backups?
. Criticality of the data/ Value of the data to the company
. Read-only tablespace needs backing up just once right after you make it read-only
. If you are running in archivelog mode you can backup parts of a database over an extended cycle of days
. If archive logging is enabled one needs to backup archived log files timeously to prevent database freezes
. Etc.
Carefully plan backup retention periods. Ensure enough backup media (tapes) are available and that old backups are expired in-time to make media available for new backups. Off-site vaulting is also highly recommended.
Frequently test your ability to recover and document all possible scenarios. Remember, it’s the little things that will get you. Most failed recoveries are a result of organizational errors and miscommunications.


794. What strategies are available for backing-up an Oracle database? (for DBA

The following methods are valid for backing-up an Oracle database:
Export/Import – Exports are “logical” database backups in that they extract logical definitions and data from the database to a file.
Cold or Off-line Backups – Shut the database down and backup up ALL data, log, and control files.
Hot or On-line Backups – If the databases are available and in ARCHIVELOG mode, set the tablespaces into backup mode and backup their files. Also remember to backup the control files and archived redo log files.
RMAN Backups – While the database is off-line or on-line, use the “rman” utility to backup the database.
It is advisable to use more than one of these methods to backup your database. For example, if you choose to do on-line database backups, also cover yourself by doing database exports. Also test ALL backup and recovery scenarios carefully. It is better to be save than sorry.
Regardless of your strategy, also remember to backup all required software libraries, parameter files, password files, etc. If your database is in ARCGIVELOG mode, you also need to backup archived log files.


795. What is the difference between online and offline backups? (for DBA

A hot backup is a backup performed while the database is online and available for read/write. Except for Oracle exports, one can only do on-line backups when running in ARCHIVELOG mode.
A cold backup is a backup performed while the database is off-line and unavailable to its users.


796. What is the difference between restoring and recovering? (for DBA

Restoring involves copying backup files from secondary storage (backup media) to disk. This can be done to replace damaged files or to copy/move a database to a new location.
Recovery is the process of applying redo logs to the database to roll it forward. One can roll-forward until a specific point-in-time (before the disaster occurred), or roll-forward until the last transaction recorded in the log files. Sql> connect SYS as SYSDBA


797. How does one backup a database using the export utility? (for DBA

Oracle exports are “logical” database backups (not physical) as they extract data and logical definitions from the database into a file. Other backup strategies normally back-up the physical data files.
One of the advantages of exports is that one can selectively re-import tables, however one cannot roll-forward from an restored export file. To completely restore a database from an export file one practically needs to recreate the entire database.
Always do full system level exports (FULL=YES). Full exports include more information about the database in the export file than user level exports.

798. What are the built_ins used the display the LOV?



799. How do you call other Oracle Products from Oracle Forms?

Run_product is a built-in, Used to invoke one of the supported oracle tools products and specifies the name of the document or module to be run. If the called product is unavailable at the time of the call, Oracle Forms returns a message to the operator.


800. What is the main diff. bet. Reports 2.0 & Reports 2.5?

Report 2.5 is object oriented.


801. What are the Built-ins to display the user-named editor?

A user named editor can be displayed programmatically with the built in procedure SHOW-EDITOR, EDIT_TETITEM independent of any particular text item.


803. How many number of columns a record group can have?

A record group can have an unlimited number of columns of type CHAR, LONG, NUMBER, or DATE provided that the total number of column does not exceed 64K.


804. What is a Query Record Group?

A query record group is a record group that has an associated SELECT statement. The columns in a query record group derive their default names, data types, had lengths from the database columns referenced in the SELECT statement. The records in query record group are the rows retrieved by the query associated with that record group. What is a Non Query Record Group?


805. What does the term panel refer to with regard to pages?

A panel is the no. of physical pages needed to print one logical page.


806. What is a master detail relationship?

A master detail relationship is an association between two base table blocks- a master block and a detail block. The relationship between the blocks reflects a primary key to foreign key relationship between the tables on which the blocks are based.


807.What is a library?

A library is a collection of subprograms including user named procedures, functions and packages.


808. What is an anchoring object & what is its use? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

An anchoring object is a print condition object which used to explicitly or implicitly anchor other objects to itself.


809. Use the add_group_column function to add a column to record group that was created at a design time?



810. What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

Double clicking the mouse consists of the mouse down, mouse up, mouse click, mouse down & mouse up events

811. What is the use of break group? What are the various sub events a mouse double click event involves?

A break group is used to display one record for one group ones. While multiple related records in other group can be displayed.


812. What tuning indicators can one use? (for DBA

The following high-level tuning indicators can be used to establish if a database is performing optimally or not:
. Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
Formula: Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads – Physical Reads) / Logical Reads
Action: Increase DB_CACHE_SIZE (DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS prior to 9i) to increase hit ratio
. Library Cache Hit Ratio
Action: Increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE to increase hit ratio


813. What tools/utilities does Oracle provide to assist with performance tuning? (for DBA

Oracle provide the following tools/ utilities to assist with performance monitoring and tuning:
. TKProf
. UTLBSTAT.SQL and UTLESTAT.SQL – Begin and end stats monitoring
. Statspack
. Oracle Enterprise Manager – Tuning Pack


814. What is STATSPACK and how does one use it? (for DBA

Statspack is a set of performance monitoring and reporting utilities provided by Oracle from Oracle8i and above. Statspack provides improved BSTAT/ESTAT functionality, though the old BSTAT/ESTAT scripts are still available. For more information about STATSPACK, read the documentation in file $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/spdoc.txt.
Install Statspack:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
sqlplus “/ as sysdba” @spdrop.sql — Install Statspack –
sqlplus “/ as sysdba” @spcreate.sql– Enter tablespace names when prompted
Use Statspack:
sqlplus perfstat/perfstat
exec statspack.snap; — Take a performance snapshots
exec statspack.snap;
o Get a list of snapshots
@spreport.sql — Enter two snapshot id’s for difference report
Other Statspack Scripts:
. sppurge.sql – Purge a range of Snapshot Id’s between the specified begin and end Snap Id’s
. spauto.sql – Schedule a dbms_job to automate the collection of STATPACK statistics
. spcreate.sql – Installs the STATSPACK user, tables and package on a database (Run as SYS).
. spdrop.sql – Deinstall STATSPACK from database (Run as SYS)
. sppurge.sql – Delete a range of Snapshot Id’s from the database
. spreport.sql – Report on differences between values recorded in two snapshots
. sptrunc.sql – Truncates all data in Statspack tables


815. What are the common RMAN errors (with solutions)? (for DBA

Some of the common RMAN errors are:
RMAN-20242: Specification does not match any archivelog in the recovery catalog.
Add to RMAN script: sql ‘alter system archive log current’;
RMAN-06089: archived log xyz not found or out of sync with catalog
Execute from RMAN: change archivelog all validate;


816. How can you execute the user defined triggers in forms 3.0 ?

Execute Trigger (trigger-name)


817. What ERASE package procedure does ?

Erase removes an indicated global variable.


818. What is the difference between NAME_IN and COPY ?

Copy is package procedure and writes values into a field.
Name in is a package function and returns the contents of the variable to which you apply.


819. What package procedure is used for calling another form ?

Call (E.g. Call(formname)


820. When the form is running in DEBUG mode, If you want to examine the values of global variables and other form variables, What package procedure command you would use in your trigger text ?



821. The value recorded in system.last_record variable is of type
a. Number
b. Boolean
c. Character. ?

b. Boolean.

822. What is mean by Program Global Area (PGA) ?

It is area in memory that is used by a Single Oracle User Process.


823. What is hit ratio ?

It is a measure of well the data cache buffer is handling requests for data. Hit Ratio = (Logical Reads – Physical Reads – Hits Misses)/ Logical Reads.


824. How do u implement the If statement in the Select Statement

We can implement the if statement in the select statement by using the Decode statement. e.g select DECODE (EMP_CAT,’1′,’First’,’2′,’Second’Null); Here the Null is the else statement where null is done .


825. How many types of Exceptions are there

There are 2 types of exceptions. They are
a) System Exceptions
e.g. When no_data_found, When too_many_rows
b) User Defined Exceptions
e.g. My_exception exception
When My_exception then


826. What are the inline and the precompiler directives

The inline and precompiler directives detect the values directly


827. How do you use the same lov for 2 columns

We can use the same lov for 2 columns by passing the return values in global values and using the global values in the code


828. How many minimum groups are required for a matrix report

The minimum number of groups in matrix report are 4


829. What is the difference between static and dynamic lov

The static lov contains the predetermined values while the dynamic lov contains values that come at run time


830. How does one manage Oracle database users? (for DBA

Oracle user accounts can be locked, unlocked, forced to choose new passwords, etc. For example, all accounts except SYS and SYSTEM will be locked after creating an Oracle9iDB database using the DB Configuration Assistant (dbca). DBA’s must unlock these accounts to make them available to users.
Look at these examples:
ALTER USER scott ACCOUNT LOCK — lock a user account
ALTER USER scott ACCOUNT UNLOCK; — unlocks a locked users account
ALTER USER scott PASSWORD EXPIRE; — Force user to choose a new password

831. How does one tune Oracle Wait events? (for DBA

Some wait events from V$SESSION_WAIT and V$SYSTEM_EVENT views:

Event Name: Tuning Recommendation:
db file sequential read Tune SQL to do less I/O. Make sure all objects are analyzed. Redistribute I/O across disks.
buffer busy waits Increase DB_CACHE_SIZE (DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS prior to 9i)/ Analyze contention from SYS.V$BH
log buffer spaces Increase LOG_BUFFER parameter or move log files to faster disks


832. What is the difference between DBFile Sequential and Scattered Reads?(for DBA

Both “db file sequential read” and “db file scattered read” events signify time waited for I/O read requests to complete. Time is reported in 100’s of a second for Oracle 8i releases and below, and 1000’s of a second for Oracle 9i and above. Most people confuse these events with each other as they think of how data is read from disk. Instead they should think of how data is read into the SGA buffer cache.
db file sequential read:
A sequential read operation reads data into contiguous memory (usually a single-block read with p3=1, but can be multiple blocks). Single block I/Os are usually the result of using indexes. This event is also used for rebuilding the controlfile and reading datafile headers (P2=1). In general, this event is indicative of disk contention on index reads.
db file scattered read:
Similar to db file sequential reads, except that the session is reading multiple data blocks and scatters them into different discontinuous buffers in the SGA. This statistic is NORMALLY indicating disk contention on full table scans. Rarely, data from full table scans could be fitted into a contiguous buffer area, these waits would then show up as sequential reads instead of scattered reads.
The following query shows average wait time for sequential versus scattered reads:
select a.average_wait “SEQ READ”, b.average_wait “SCAT READ”
from sys.v_$system_event a, sys.v_$system_event b
where a.event = ‘db file sequential read’
and b.event = ‘db file scattered read’;


833. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ?

Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.


834. What is the use of TABLES option in EXP command ?

List of tables should be exported.ze)


835. What is the OPTIMAL parameter?

It is used to set the optimal length of a rollback segment.


836. How does one use ORADEBUG from Server Manager/ SQL*Plus? (for DBA

Execute the “ORADEBUG HELP” command from svrmgrl or sqlplus to obtain a list of valid ORADEBUG commands. Look at these examples:
SQLPLUS> REM Trace SQL statements with bind variables
SQLPLUS> oradebug setospid 10121
Oracle pid: 91, Unix process pid: 10121, image: oracleorcl
SQLPLUS> oradebug EVENT 10046 trace name context forever, level 12
Statement processed.
SQLPLUS> ! vi /app/oracle/admin/orcl/bdump/ora_10121.trc
SQLPLUS> REM Trace Process Statistics
SQLPLUS> oradebug setorapid 2
Unix process pid: 1436, image: ora_pmon_orcl
SQLPLUS> oradebug procstat
Statement processed.
SQLPLUS> REM List semaphores and shared memory segments in use
SQLPLUS> oradebug ipc
SQLPLUS> REM Dump Error Stack
SQLPLUS> oradebug setospid <pid>
SQLPLUS> oradebug event immediate trace name errorstack level 3
SQLPLUS> REM Dump Parallel Server DLM locks
SQLPLUS> oradebug lkdebug -a convlock
SQLPLUS> oradebug lkdebug -a convres
SQLPLUS> oradebug lkdebug -r <resource handle> (i.e 0x8066d338 from convres dump)


837. Are there any undocumented commands in Oracle? (for DBA

Sure there are, but it is hard to find them. Look at these examples:
From Server Manager (Oracle7.3 and above): ORADEBUG HELP
It looks like one can change memory locations with the ORADEBUG POKE command. Anyone brave enough to test this one for us? Previously this functionality was available with ORADBX (ls -l $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/oradbx.o; make -f oradbx) SQL*Plus: ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = SYS;

838. If the maximum record retrieved property of the query is set to 10 then a summary value will be calculated?

Only for 10 records.


839. What are the different objects that you cannot copy or reference in object groups?

Objects of different modules
Another object groups
Individual block dependent items
Program units.


840. What is an OLE?

Object Linking & Embedding provides you with the capability to integrate objects from many Ms-Windows applications into a single compound document creating integrated applications enables you to use the features form .


841. Can a repeating frame be created without a data group as a base?



842. Is it possible to set a filter condition in a cross product group in matrix reports?



843. What is Overloading of procedures ?

The Same procedure name is repeated with parameters of different datatypes and parameters in different positions, varying number of parameters is called overloading of procedures. e.g. DBMS_OUTPUT put_line


844. What are the return values of functions SQLCODE and SQLERRM ? What is Pragma EXECPTION_INIT ? Explain the usage ?

SQLCODE returns the latest code of the error that has occurred.
SQLERRM returns the relevant error message of the SQLCODE.


845. What are the datatypes a available in PL/SQL ?

Some scalar data types such as NUMBER, VARCHAR2, DATE, CHAR, LONG, BOOLEAN. Some composite data types such as RECORD & TABLE.


846. What are the two parts of a procedure ?

Procedure Specification and Procedure Body.


847. What is the basic structure of PL/SQL ?

PL/SQL uses block structure as its basic structure. Anonymous blocks or nested blocks can be used in PL/SQL.

848. What is PL/SQL table ?

Objects of type TABLE are called “PL/SQL tables”, which are modeled as (but not the same as) database tables, PL/SQL tables use a primary PL/SQL tables can have one column and a primary key. Cursors


849. WHAT IS RMAN ? (for DBA

Recovery Manager is a tool that: manages the process of creating backups and also manages the process of restoring and recovering from them.


850. WHY USE RMAN ? (for DBA

  • No extra costs …Its available free
  • ?RMAN introduced in Oracle 8 it has become simpler with newer versions and easier than user managed backups
  • ?Proper security
  • ?You are 100% sure your database has been backed up.
  • ?Its contains detail of the backups taken etc in its central repository
  • Facility for testing validity of backups also commands like crosscheck to check the status of backup.
  • Faster backups and restores compared to backups without RMAN
  • RMAN is the only backup tool which supports incremental backups.
  • Oracle 10g has got further optimized incremental backup which has resulted in improvement of performance during backup and recovery time
  • Parallel operations are supported
  • Better querying facility for knowing different details of backup
  • No extra redo generated when backup is taken..compared to online
  • backup without RMAN which results in saving of space in hard disk
  • RMAN an intelligent tool
  • Maintains repository of backup metadata
  • Remembers backup set location
  • Knows what need to backed up
  • Knows what is required for recovery
  • Knows what backups are redundant


An oracle RMAN comprises of
RMAN EXECUTABLE This could be present and fired even through client side
TARGET DATABASE This is the database which needs to be backed up .
RECOVERY CATALOG Recovery catalog is optional otherwise backup details are stored in target database controlfile .
It is a repository of information queried and updated by Recovery Manager
It is a schema or user stored in Oracle database. One schema can support many databases
It contains information about physical schema of target database datafile and archive log ,backup sets and pieces Recovery catalog is a must in following scenarios
. In order to store scripts
. For tablespace point in time recovery

Media Management Software
Media Management software is a must if you are using RMAN for storing backup in tape drive directly.

Backups in RMAN
Oracle backups in RMAN are of the following type
RMAN complete backup OR RMAN incremental backup
These backups are of RMAN proprietary nature

The advantage of uing Image copy is its not in RMAN proprietary format..

Backup Format
RMAN backup is not in oracle format but in RMAN format. Oracle backup comprises of backup sets and it consists of backup pieces. Backup sets are logical entity In oracle 9i it gets stored in a default location There are two type of backup sets Datafile backup sets, Archivelog backup sets One more important point of data file backup sets is it do not include empty blocks. A backup set would contain many backup pieces.
A single backup piece consists of physical files which are in RMAN proprietary format.

Example of taking backup using RMAN
Taking RMAN Backup
In non archive mode in dos prompt type
You get the RMAN prompt
RMAN > Connect Target
Connect to target database : Magic
using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog

Lets take a simple backup of database in non archive mode
shutdown immediate ; – – Shutdowns the database
startup mount
backup database ;- its start backing the database
alter database open;
We can fire the same command in archive log mode
And whole of datafiles will be backed
Backup database plus archivelog;

Restoring database
Restoring database has been made very simple in 9i .
It is just
Restore database..
RMAN has become intelligent to identify which datafiles has to be restored
and the location of backuped up file.

Oracle Enhancement for RMAN in 10 G

Flash Recovery Area
Right now the price of hard disk is falling. Many dba are taking oracle database backup inside the hard disk itself since it results in lesser mean time between recoverability.
The new parameter introduced is
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST = /oracle/flash_recovery_area
By configuring the RMAN RETENTION POLICY the flash recovery area will automatically delete obsolete backups and archive logs that are no longer required based on that configuration Oracle has introduced new features in incremental backup

Change Tracking File
Oracle 10g has the facility to deliver faster incrementals with the implementation of changed tracking file feature.This will results in faster backups lesser space consumption and also reduces the time needed for daily backups

Incrementally Updated Backups
Oracle database 10g Incrementally Updates Backup features merges the image copy of a datafile with RMAN incremental backup. The resulting image copy is now updated with block changes captured by incremental backups.The merging of the image copy and incremental backup is initiated with RMAN recover command. This results in faster recovery.

Binary compression technique reduces backup space usage by 50-75%.

With the new DURATION option for the RMAN BACKUP command, DBAs can weigh backup performance against system service level requirements. By specifying a duration, RMAN will automatically calculate the appropriate backup rate; in addition, DBAs can optionally specify whether backups should minimize time or system load.

New Features in Oem to identify RMAN related backup like backup pieces, backup sets and image copy

Oracle 9i New features Persistent RMAN Configuration
A new configure command has been introduced in Oracle 9i , that lets you configure various features including automatic channels, parallelism ,backup options, etc.
These automatic allocations and options can be overridden by commands in a RMAN command file.

Controlfile Auto backups
Through this new feature RMAN will automatically perform a controlfile auto backup. after every backup or copy command.

Block Media Recovery
If we can restore a few blocks rather than an entire file we only need few blocks.
We even dont need to bring the data file offline.
Syntax for it as follows
Block Recover datafile 8 block 22;

Configure Backup Optimization
Prior to 9i whenever we backed up database using RMAN our backup also used take backup of read only table spaces which had already been backed up and also the same with archive log too.
Now with 9i backup optimization parameter we can prevent repeat backup of read only tablespace and archive log. The command for this is as follows Configure backup optimization on

Archive Log failover
If RMAN cannot read a block in an archived log from a destination. RMAN automatically attempts to read from an alternate location this is called as archive log failover

There are additional commands like
backup database not backed up since time ’31-jan-2002 14:00:00′
Do not backup previously backed up files
(say a previous backup failed and you want to restart from where it left off).
Similar syntax is supported for restores
backup device sbt backup set all Copy a disk backup to tape
(backing up a backup
Additionally it supports
. Backup of server parameter file
. Parallel operation supported
. Extensive reporting available
. Scripting
. Duplex backup sets
. Corrupt block detection
. Backup archive logs

Pitfalls of using RMAN
Previous to version Oracle 9i backups were not that easy which means you had to allocate a channel compulsorily to take backup You had to give a run etc . The syntax was a bit complex …RMAN has now become very simple and easy to use..
If you changed the location of backup set it is compulsory for you to register it using RMAN or while you are trying to restore backup It resulted in hanging situations
There is no method to know whether during recovery database restore is going to fail because of missing archive log file.
Compulsory Media Management only if using tape backup
Incremental backups though used to consume less space used to be slower since it used to read the entire database to find the changed blocks and also They have difficult time streaming the tape device. .
Considerable improvement has been made in 10g to optimize the algorithm to handle changed block.

Introduced in Oracle 8 it has become more powerful and simpler with newer version of Oracle 9 and 10 g.
So if you really don’t want to miss something critical please start using RMAN.


INTERSECT returns all distinct rows selected by both queries.MINUS – returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second.UNION – returns all distinct rows selected by either queryUNION ALL – returns all rows selected by either query, including all duplicates.


852. Should the OEM Console be displayed at all times (when there are scheduled jobs)? (for DBA

When a job is submitted the agent will confirm the status of the job. When the status shows up as scheduled, you can close down the OEM console. The processing of the job is managed by the OIA (Oracle Intelligent Agent). The OIA maintains a .jou file in the agent’s subdirectory. When the console is launched communication with the Agent is established and the contents of the .jou file (binary) are reported to the console job subsystem. Note that OEM will not be able to send e-mail and paging notifications when the Console is not started.


853. Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR ?

INSTR (String1,String2(n,(m)),INSTR returns the position of the mth occurrence of the string 2 instring1. The search begins from nth position of string1.SUBSTR (String1 n,m)SUBSTR returns a character string of size m in string1, starting from nth position of string1.


854. What kind of jobs can one schedule with OEM? (for DBA

OEM comes with pre-defined jobs like Export, Import, run OS commands, run sql scripts, SQL*Plus commands etc. It also gives you the flexibility of scheduling custom jobs written with the TCL language.


855. What are the pre requisites ?

I. to modify data type of a column ? ii. to add a column with NOT NULL constraint ? To Modify the datatype of a column the column must be empty. to add a column with NOT NULL constrain, the table must be empty.


856. How does one backout events and jobs during maintenance slots? (for DBA

Managemnet and data collection activity can be suspended by imposing a blackout. Look at these examples:
agentctl start blackout # Blackout the entrire agent
agentctl stop blackout # Resume normal monitoring and management
agentctl start blackout ORCL # Blackout database ORCL
agentctl stop blackout ORCL # Resume normal monitoring and management
agentctl start blackout -s jobs -d 00:20 # Blackout jobs for 20 minutes


857. What are the types of SQL Statement ?

Data Definition Language :

Data Manipulation Language:

TABLE,EXPLAIN PLAN & SELECT.Transactional Control:

ROLESystem Control :


858. What is the Oracle Intelligent Agent? (for DBA

The Oracle Intelligent Agent (OIA) is an autonomous process that needs to run on a remote node in the network to make the node OEM manageable. The Oracle Intelligent Agent is responsible for:
. Discovering targets that can be managed (Database Servers, Net8 Listeners, etc.);
. Monitoring of events registered in Enterprise Manager; and
. Executing tasks associated with jobs submitted to Enterprise Manager.


859. How does one start the Oracle Intelligent Agent? (for DBA

One needs to start an OIA (Oracle Intelligent Agent) process on all machines that will to be managed via OEM.
For OEM 9i and above:
agentctl start agent
agentctl stop agent

For OEM 2.1 and below:
lsnrctl dbsnmp_start
lsnrctl dbsnmp_status

On Windows NT, start the “OracleAgent” Service.
If the agent doesn’t want to start, ensure your environment variables are set correctly and delete the following files before trying again:
1) In $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin: snmp_ro.ora and snmp_rw.ora.
2) Also delete ALL files in $ORACLE_HOME/network/agent/.

Can one write scripts to send alert messages to the console?

Start the OEM console and create a new event. Select option “Enable Unsolicited Event”. Select test “Unsolicited Event”. When entering the parameters, enter values similar to these:
Event Name: /oracle/script/myalert
Object: *
Severity: *
Message: *
One can now write the script and invoke the oemevent command to send alerts to the console. Look at this example: oemevent /oracle/script/myalert DESTINATION alert “My custom error message” where DESTINATION is the same value as entered in the “Monitored Destinations” field when you’ve registered the event in the OEM Console.


860. Where can one get more information about TCL? (for DBA

One can write custom event checking routines for OEM using the TCL (Tool Command Language) language. Check the following sites for more information about TCL:
. The Tcl Developer Xchange – download and learn about TCL
. OraTCL at Sourceforge – Download the OraTCL package
. Tom Poindexter’s Tcl Page – Oratcl was originally written by Tom Poindexter


861. Are there any troubleshooting tips for OEM? (for DBA

. Create the OEM repository with a user (which will manage the OEM) and store it in a tablespace that does not share any data with other database users. It is a bad practice to create the repository with SYS and System.
. If you are unable to launch the console or there is a communication problem with the intelligent agent (daemon). Ensure OCX files are registered. Type the following in the DOS prompt (the current directory should be $ORACLE_HOME\BIN:
C:\Orawin95\Bin> RegSvr32 mmdx32.OCX
C:\Orawin95\Bin> RegSvr32 vojt.OCX
. If you have a problem starting the Oracle Agent
Solution A: Backup the *.Q files and Delete all the *.Q Files ($Oracle_home/network/agent folder)
Backup and delete SNMP_RO.ora, SNMP_RW.ora, dbsnmp.ver and services.ora files ($Oracle_Home/network/admin folder) Start the Oracle Agent service.
Solution B: Your version of Intelligent Agent could be buggy. Check with Oracle for any available patches. For example, the Intelligent Agent that comes with Oracle 8.0.4 is buggy.
Sometimes you get a Failed status for the job that was executed successfully.
Check the log to see the results of the execution rather than relying on this status.

862. What is import/export and why does one need it? (for DBA

The Oracle export (EXP) and import (IMP) utilities are used to perform logical database backup and recovery. They are also used to move Oracle data from one machine, database or schema to another.
The imp/exp utilities use an Oracle proprietary binary file format and can thus only be used between Oracle databases. One cannot export data and expect to import it into a non-Oracle database. For more information on how to load and unload data from files, read the SQL*Loader FAQ.
The export/import utilities are also commonly used to perform the following tasks:
. Backup and recovery (small databases only)
. Reorganization of data/ Eliminate database fragmentation
. Detect database corruption. Ensure that all the data can be read.
. Transporting tablespaces between databases
. Etc.


863. what is a display item?

Display items are similar to text items but store only fetched or assigned values. Operators cannot navigate to a display item or edit the value it contains.


867. How does one use the import/export utilities? (for DBA

Look for the “imp” and “exp” executables in your $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. One can run them interactively, using command line parameters, or using parameter files. Look at the imp/exp parameters before starting. These parameters can be listed by executing the following commands: “exp help=yes” or “imp help=yes”.
The following examples demonstrate how the imp/exp utilities can be used:
exp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp log=emp.log tables=emp rows=yes indexes=no
exp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp tables=(emp,dept)
imp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp full=yes
imp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp fromuser=scott touser=scott tables=dept
exp userid=scott/tiger@orcl parfile=export.txt
… where export.txt contains:
NOTE: If you do not like command line utilities, you can import and export data with the “Schema Manager” GUI that ships with Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM).


868. What are the types of visual attribute settings?

Custom Visual attributes Default visual attributes Named Visual attributes. Window


869. Can one export a subset of a table? (for DBA

From Oracle8i one can use the QUERY= export parameter to selectively unload a subset of the data from a table. Look at this example:
exp scott/tiger tables=emp query=\”where deptno=10\”


870. What are the two ways to incorporate images into a oracle forms application?

Boilerplate Images


871. Can one monitor how fast a table is imported? (for DBA

If you need to monitor how fast rows are imported from a running import job, try one of the following methods:
Method 1:
select substr(sql_text,instr(sql_text,’INTO “‘),30) table_name,
round((sysdate-to_date(first_load_time,’yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss’))*24*60,1) minutes,
trunc(rows_processed/((sysdate-to_date(first_load_time,’yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss’))*24*60)) rows_per_min
from sys.v_$sqlarea
where sql_text like ‘INSERT %INTO “%’
and command_type = 2
and open_versions > 0;
For this to work one needs to be on Oracle 7.3 or higher (7.2 might also be OK). If the import has more than one table, this statement will only show information about the current table being imported.
Contributed by Osvaldo Ancarola, Bs. As. Argentina.
Method 2:
Use the FEEDBACK=n import parameter. This command will tell IMP to display a dot for every N rows imported.


872. Can one import tables to a different tablespace? (for DBA

Oracle offers no parameter to specify a different tablespace to import data into. Objects will be re-created in the tablespace they were originally exported from. One can alter this behaviour by following one of these procedures: Pre-create the table(s) in the correct tablespace:
. Import the dump file using the INDEXFILE= option
. Edit the indexfile. Remove remarks and specify the correct tablespaces.
. Run this indexfile against your database, this will create the required tables in the appropriate tablespaces
. Import the table(s) with the IGNORE=Y option.
Change the default tablespace for the user:

. Revoke the “UNLIMITED TABLESPACE” privilege from the user
. Revoke the user’s quota from the tablespace from where the object was exported. This forces the import utility to create tables in the user’s default tablespace.
. Make the tablespace to which you want to import the default tablespace for the user
. Import the table


873. What do you mean by a block in forms4.0?

Block is a single mechanism for grouping related items into a functional unit for storing, displaying and manipulating records.

874. How is possible to restrict the user to a list of values while entering values for parameters?

By setting the Restrict To List property to true in the parameter property sheet.


875. What is SQL*Loader and what is it used for? (for DBA

SQL*Loader is a bulk loader utility used for moving data from external files into the Oracle database. Its syntax is similar to that of the DB2 Load utility, but comes with more options. SQL*Loader supports various load formats, selective loading, and multi-table loads.


876. How does one use the SQL*Loader utility? (for DBA

One can load data into an Oracle database by using the sqlldr (sqlload on some platforms) utility. Invoke the utility without arguments to get a list of available parameters. Look at the following example:
sqlldr scott/tiger control=loader.ctl
This sample control file (loader.ctl) will load an external data file containing delimited data:
load data
infile ‘c:\data\mydata.csv’
into table emp
fields terminated by “,” optionally enclosed by ‘”‘
( empno, empname, sal, deptno )
The mydata.csv file may look like this:
10001,”Scott Tiger”, 1000, 40
10002,”Frank Naude”, 500, 20
Another Sample control file with in-line data formatted as fix length records. The trick is to specify “*” as the name of the data file, and use BEGINDATA to start the data section in the control file.
load data
infile *
into table departments
( dept position (02:05) char(4),
deptname position (08:27) char(20)


877. How can a cross product be created?

By selecting the cross products tool and drawing a new group surrounding the base group of the cross products.


878. Is there a SQL*Unloader to download data to a flat file? (for DBA

Oracle does not supply any data unload utilities. However, you can use SQL*Plus to select and format your data and then spool it to a file:
set echo off newpage 0 space 0 pagesize 0 feed off head off trimspool on
spool oradata.txt
select col1 || ‘,’ || col2 || ‘,’ || col3
from tab1
where col2 = ‘XYZ’;
spool off
Alternatively use the UTL_FILE PL/SQL package:
rem Remember to update initSID.ora, utl_file_dir=’c:\oradata’ parameter
fp utl_file.file_type;
fp := utl_file.fopen(‘c:\oradata’,’tab1.txt’,’w’);
utl_file.putf(fp, ‘%s, %s\n’, ‘TextField’, 55);
You might also want to investigate third party tools like SQLWays from Ispirer Systems, TOAD from Quest, or ManageIT Fast Unloader from CA to help you unload data from Oracle.


879. Can one load variable and fix length data records? (for DBA

Yes, look at the following control file examples. In the first we will load delimited data (variable length):
INTO TABLE load_delimited_data
( data1,
If you need to load positional data (fixed length), look at the following control file example:
INTO TABLE load_positional_data
( data1 POSITION(1:5),
data2 POSITION(6:15)
Can one skip header records load while loading?
Use the “SKIP n” keyword, where n = number of logical rows to skip. Look at this example:
INTO TABLE load_positional_data
( data1 POSITION(1:5),
data2 POSITION(6:15)


880. Can one modify data as it loads into the database? (for DBA

Data can be modified as it loads into the Oracle Database. Note that this only applies for the conventional load path and not for direct path loads.
INTO TABLE modified_data
( rec_no “my_db_sequence.nextval”,
region CONSTANT ’31’,
time_loaded “to_char(SYSDATE, ‘HH24:MI’)”,
data1 POSITION(1:5) “:data1/100”,
data2 POSITION(6:15) “upper(:data2)”,
data3 POSITION(16:22)”to_date(:data3, ‘YYMMDD’)”
INFILE ‘mail_orders.txt’
BADFILE ‘bad_orders.txt’
INTO TABLE mailing_list
( addr,
mailing_addr “decode(:mailing_addr, null, :addr, :mailing_addr)”,
mailing_city “decode(:mailing_city, null, :city, :mailing_city)”,


881.Can one load data into multiple tables at once? (for DBA

Look at the following control file:
WHEN empno != ‘ ‘
ename POSITION(6:15) CHAR,
deptno POSITION(17:18) CHAR,
WHEN projno != ‘ ‘

882. What is the difference between boiler plat images and image items?

Boiler plate Images are static images (Either vector or bit map) that you import from the file system or database to use a graphical elements in your form, such as company logos and maps. Image items are special types of interface controls that store and display either vector or bitmap images. Like other items that store values, image items can be either base table items(items that relate directly to database columns) or control items. The definition of an image item is stored as part of the form module FMB and FMX files, but no image file is actually associated with an image item until the item is populate at run time.

883. What are the triggers available in the reports?

Before report, Before form, After form , Between page, After report.


884. Why is a Where clause faster than a group filter or a format trigger?

Because, in a where clause the condition is applied during data retrievalthan after retrieving the data.


885. Can one selectively load only the records that one need? (for DBA

Look at this example, (01) is the first character, (30:37) are characters 30 to 37:
INFILE ‘mydata.dat’ BADFILE ‘mydata.bad’ DISCARDFILE ‘mydata.dis’
INTO TABLE my_selective_table
WHEN (01) <> ‘H’ and (01) <> ‘T’ and (30:37) = ‘19991217’
region CONSTANT ’31’,
call_b_no POSITION(12:29) CHAR


886. Can one skip certain columns while loading data? (for DBA

One cannot use POSTION(x:y) with delimited data. Luckily, from Oracle 8i one can specify FILLER columns. FILLER columns are used to skip columns/fields in the load file, ignoring fields that one does not want. Look at this example: — One cannot use POSTION(x:y) as it is stream data, there are no positional fields-the next field begins after some delimiter, not in column X. –>
( field1,
field2 FILLER,


887. How does one load multi-line records? (for DBA

One can create one logical record from multiple physical records using one of the following two clauses:
. CONCATENATE: – use when SQL*Loader should combine the same number of physical records together to form one logical record.
. CONTINUEIF – use if a condition indicates that multiple records should be treated as one. Eg. by having a ‘#’ character in column 1.


889. How can get SQL*Loader to COMMIT only at the end of the load file? (for DBA

One cannot, but by setting the ROWS= parameter to a large value, committing can be reduced. Make sure you have big rollback segments ready when you use a high value for ROWS=.


890. Can one improve the performance of SQL*Loader? (for DBA

A very simple but easily overlooked hint is not to have any indexes and/or constraints (primary key) on your load tables during the load process. This will significantly slow down load times even with ROWS= set to a high value.
Add the following option in the command line: DIRECT=TRUE. This will effectively bypass most of the RDBMS processing. However, there are cases when you can’t use direct load. Refer to chapter 8 on Oracle server Utilities manual.
Turn off database logging by specifying the UNRECOVERABLE option. This option can only be used with direct data loads. Run multiple load jobs concurrently.


891. How does one use SQL*Loader to load images, sound clips and documents? (for DBA

SQL*Loader can load data from a “primary data file”, SDF (Secondary Data file – for loading nested tables and VARRAYs) or LOGFILE. The LOBFILE method provides and easy way to load documents, images and audio clips into BLOB and CLOB columns. Look at this example:
Given the following table:
CREATE TABLE image_table (
image_id NUMBER(5),
file_name VARCHAR2(30),
image_data BLOB);
Control File:
INTO TABLE image_table
image_id INTEGER(5),
file_name CHAR(30),
image_data LOBFILE (file_name) TERMINATED BY EOF


892. What is the difference between the conventional and direct path loader? (for DBA

The conventional path loader essentially loads the data by using standard INSERT statements. The direct path loader (DIRECT=TRUE) bypasses much of the logic involved with that, and loads directly into the Oracle data files. More information about the restrictions of direct path loading can be obtained from the Utilities Users Guide.




1.What are the various types of Exceptions ?

User defined and Predefined Exceptions.


2.Can we define exceptions twice in same block ?



3.What is the difference between a procedure and a function ?

Functions return a single variable by value whereas procedures do not return any variable by value. Rather they return multiple variables by passing variables by reference through their OUT parameter.


4.Can you have two functions with the same name in a PL/SQL block ?



5.Can you have two stored functions with the same name ?



6.Can you call a stored function in the constraint of a table ?



7.What are the various types of parameter modes in a procedure ?



8.What is Over Loading and what are its restrictions ?

OverLoading means an object performing different functions depending upon the no. of parameters or the data type of the parameters passed to it.


9.Can functions be overloaded ?



10.Can 2 functions have same name & input parameters but differ only by return datatype



11.What are the constructs of a procedure, function or a package ?

The constructs of a procedure, function or a package are :
variables and constants


12.Why Create or Replace and not Drop and recreate procedures ?

So that Grants are not dropped.


13.Can you pass parameters in packages ? How ?

Yes. You can pass parameters to procedures or functions in a package.


14.What are the parts of a database trigger ?

The parts of a trigger are:
A triggering event or statement
A trigger restriction
A trigger action


15.What are the various types of database triggers ?

There are 12 types of triggers, they are combination of :
Insert, Delete and Update Triggers.
Before and After Triggers.
Row and Statement Triggers.

16.What is the advantage of a stored procedure over a database trigger ?

We have control over the firing of a stored procedure but we have no control over the firing of a trigger.


17.What is the maximum no. of statements that can be specified in a trigger statement ?



18.Can views be specified in a trigger statement ?



19.What are the values of :new and :old in Insert/Delete/Update Triggers ?

INSERT : new = new value, old = NULL
DELETE : new = NULL, old = old value
UPDATE : new = new value, old = old value


20.What are cascading triggers? What is the maximum no of cascading triggers at a time?

When a statement in a trigger body causes another trigger to be fired, the triggers are said to be cascading. Max = 32.


21.What are mutating triggers ?

A trigger giving a SELECT on the table on which the trigger is written.


22.What are constraining triggers ?

A trigger giving an Insert/Updat e on a table having referential integrity constraint on the triggering table.


23.Describe Oracle database’s physical and logical structure ?

Physical : Data files, Redo Log files, Control file.
Logical : Tables, Views, Tablespaces, etc.


24.Can you increase the size of a tablespace ? How ?

Yes, by adding datafiles to it.


26.What is the use of Control files ?

Contains pointers to locations of various data files, redo log files, etc.


27.What is the use of Data Dictionary ?

Used by Oracle to store information about various physical and logical Oracle structures e.g. Tables, Tablespaces, datafiles, etc


28.What are the advantages of clusters ?

Access time reduced for joins.


29.What are the disadvantages of clusters ?

The time for Insert increases.


30.Can Long/Long RAW be clustered ?


31.Can null keys be entered in cluster index, normal index ?



32.Can Check constraint be used for self referential integrity ? How ?

Yes. In the CHECK condition for a column of a table, we can reference some other column of the same table and thus enforce self referential integrity.


33.What are the min. extents allocated to a rollback extent ?



34.What are the states of a rollback segment ? What is the difference between partly available and needs recovery ?

The various states of a rollback segment are :


35.What is the difference between unique key and primary key ?

Unique key can be null; Primary key cannot be null.


36.An insert statement followed by a create table statement followed by rollback ? Will the rows be inserted ?



37.Can you define multiple savepoints ?



38.Can you Rollback to any savepoint ?



40.What is the maximum no. of columns a table can have ?



41.What is the significance of the & and && operators in PL SQL ?

The & operator means that the PL SQL block requires user input for a variable. The && operator means that the value of this variable should be the same as inputted by the user previously for this same variable. If a transaction is very large, and the rollback segment is not able to hold the rollback information, then will the transaction span across different rollback segments or will it terminate ? It will terminate (Please check ).


42.Can you pass a parameter to a cursor ?

Explicit cursors can take parameters, as the example below shows. A cursor parameter can appear in a query wherever a constant can appear. CURSOR c1 (median IN NUMBER) IS SELECT job, ename FROM emp WHERE sal > median;


43.What are the various types of RollBack Segments ?

Public Available to all instances
Private Available to specific instance

44.Can you use %RowCount as a parameter to a cursor ?



45.Is the query below allowed :
Select sal, ename Into x From emp Where ename = ‘KING’
(Where x is a record of Number(4) and Char(15))



46.Is the assignment given below allowed :
ABC = PQR (Where ABC and PQR are records)



47.Is this for loop allowed :
For x in &Start..&End Loop



48.How many rows will the following SQL return :
Select * from emp Where rownum < 10;

9 rows


49.How many rows will the following SQL return :
Select * from emp Where rownum = 10;

No rows


50.Which symbol preceeds the path to the table in the remote database ?



51.Are views automatically updated when base tables are updated ?



52.Can a trigger written for a view ?



53.If all the values from a cursor have been fetched and another fetch is issued, the output will be : error, last record or first record ?

Last Record


54.A table has the following data : [[5, Null, 10]]. What will the average function return ?



55.Is Sysdate a system variable or a system function?

System Function


56.Consider a sequence whose currval is 1 and gets incremented by 1 by using the nextval reference we get the next number 2. Suppose at this point we issue an rollback and again issue a nextval. What will the output be ?



56.Definition of relational DataBase by Dr. Codd (IBM)?

A Relational Database is a database where all data visible to the user is organized strictly as tables of data values and where all database operations work on these tables.


57.What is Multi Threaded Server (MTA) ?

In a Single Threaded Architecture (or a dedicated server configuration) the database manager creates a separate process for each database user. But in MTA the database manager can assign multiple users (multiple user processes) to a single dispatcher (server process), a controlling process that queues request for work thus reducing the databases memory requirement and resources.


58.Which are initial RDBMS, Hierarchical & N/w database ?

RDBMS – R system
Hierarchical – IMS


60.What is Functional Dependency

Given a relation R, attribute Y of R is functionally dependent on attribute X of R if and only if each X-value has associated with it precisely one -Y value in R

61.What is Auditing ?

The database has the ability to audit all actions that take place within it.
a) Login attempts, b) Object Accesss, c) Database Action Result of Greatest(1,NULL) or Least(1,NULL) NULL


62.While designing in client/server what are the 2 imp. things to be considered ?

Network Overhead (traffic), Speed and Load of client server


64.When to create indexes ?

To be created when table is queried for less than 2% or 4% to 25% of the table rows.


65.How can you avoid indexes ?

TO make index access path unavailable – Use FULL hint to optimizer for full table scan – Use INDEX or AND-EQUAL hint to optimizer to use one index or set to indexes instead of another. – Use an expression in the Where Clause of the SQL.


66.What is the result of the following SQL :
Select 1 from dual
Select ‘A’ from dual;



67.Can database trigger written on synonym of a table and if it can be then what would be the effect if original table is accessed.

Yes, database trigger would fire.


68.Can you alter synonym of view or view ?



69.Can you create index on view



70.What is the difference between a view and a synonym ?

Synonym is just a second name of table used for multiple link of database. View can be created with many tables, and with virtual columns and with conditions. But synonym can be on view.


71.What is the difference between alias and synonym ?

Alias is temporary and used with one query. Synonym is permanent and not used as alias.


72.What is the effect of synonym and table name used in same Select statement ?



73.What’s the length of SQL integer ?

32 bit length


74.What is the difference between foreign key and reference key ?

Foreign key is the key i.e. attribute which refers to another table primary key. Reference key is the primary key of table referred by another table.


75.Can dual table be deleted, dropped or altered or updated or inserted ?



76.If content of dual is updated to some value computation takes place or not ?



77.If any other table same as dual is created would it act similar to dual?



78.For which relational operators in where clause, index is not used ?

<> , like ‘% …’ is NOT functions, field +constant, field || ”


79.Assume that there are multiple databases running on one machine. How can you switch from one to another ?

Changing the ORACLE_SID


80.What are the advantages of Oracle ?

Portability : Oracle is ported to more platforms than any of its competitors, running on more than 100 hardware platforms and 20 networking protocols.
Market Presence : Oracle is by far the largest RDBMS vendor and spends more on R & D than most of its competitors earn in total revenue. This market clout means that you are unlikely to be left in the lurch by Oracle and there are always lots of third party interfaces available.
Backup and Recovery : Oracle provides industrial strength support for on-line backup and recovery and good software fault tolerence to disk failure. You can also do point-in-time recovery.
Performance : Speed of a ‘tuned’ Oracle Database and application is quite good, even with large databases. Oracle can manage > 100GB databases.
Multiple database support : Oracle has a superior ability to manage multiple databases within the same transaction using a two-phase commit protocol.


81.What is a forward declaration ? What is its use ?

PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it. Therefore, you must declare a subprogram before calling it. This declaration at the start of a subprogram is called forward declaration. A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon.


82.What are actual and formal parameters ?

Actual Parameters : Subprograms pass information using parameters. The variables or expressions referenced in the parameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters. For example, the following procedure call lists two actual parameters named emp_num and amount:
Eg. raise_salary(emp_num, amount);
Formal Parameters : The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formal parameters. For example, the following procedure declares two formal parameters named emp_id and increase: Eg. PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER, increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL;

83.What are the types of Notation ?

Position, Named, Mixed and Restrictions.


84.What all important parameters of the init.ora are supposed to be increased if you want to increase the SGA size ?

In our case, db_block_buffers was changed from 60 to 1000 (std values are 60, 550 & 3500) shared_pool_size was changed from 3.5MB to 9MB (std values are 3.5, 5 & 9MB) open_cursors was changed from 200 to 300 (std values are 200 & 300) db_block_size was changed from 2048 (2K) to 4096 (4K) {at the time of database creation}.
The initial SGA was around 4MB when the server RAM was 32MB and The new SGA was around 13MB when the server RAM was increased to 128MB.


85.If I have an execute privilege on a procedure in another users schema, can I execute his procedure even though I do not have privileges on the tables within the procedure ?



86.What are various types of joins ?

Equijoins, Non-equijoins, self join, outer join


87.What is a package cursor ?

A package cursor is a cursor which you declare in the package specification without an SQL statement. The SQL statement for the cursor is attached dynamically at runtime from calling procedures.


88.If you insert a row in a table, then create another table and then say Rollback. In this case will the row be inserted ?

Yes. Because Create table is a DDL which commits automatically as soon as it is executed. The DDL commits the transaction even if the create statement fails internally (eg table already exists error) and not syntactically.


89.What are the various types of queries ??

Normal Queries
Sub Queries
Co-related queries
Nested queries
Compound queries


90.What is a transaction ?

A transaction is a set of SQL statements between any two COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements.


91.What is implicit cursor and how is it used by Oracle ?

An implicit cursor is a cursor which is internally created by Oracle. It is created by Oracle for each individual SQL.


92.Which of the following is not a schema object : Indexes, tables, public synonyms, triggers and packages ?

Public synonyms


94.What is PL/SQL?

PL/SQL is Oracle’s Procedural Language extension to SQL. The language includes object oriented programming techniques such as encapsulation, function overloading, information hiding (all but inheritance), and so, brings state-of-the-art programming to the Oracle database server and a variety of Oracle tools.


95.Is there a PL/SQL Engine in SQL*Plus?

No. Unlike Oracle Forms, SQL*Plus does not have a PL/SQL engine. Thus, all your PL/SQL are send directly to the database engine for execution. This makes it much more efficient as SQL statements are not stripped off and send to the database individually.


96.Is there a limit on the size of a PL/SQL block?

Currently, the maximum parsed/compiled size of a PL/SQL block is 64K and the maximum code size is 100K. You can run the following select statement to query the size of an existing package or procedure.
SQL> select * from dba_object_size where name = ‘procedure_name’


97.Can one read/write files from PL/SQL?

Included in Oracle 7.3 is a UTL_FILE package that can read and write files. The directory you intend writing to has to be in your INIT.ORA file (see UTL_FILE_DIR=… parameter). Before Oracle 7.3 the only means of writing a file was to use DBMS_OUTPUT with the SQL*Plus SPOOL command.
fileHandler := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(‘/home/oracle/tmp’, ‘myoutput’,’W’);
UTL_FILE.PUTF(fileHandler, ‘Value of func1 is %sn’, func1(1));


98.How can I protect my PL/SQL source code?

PL/SQL V2.2, available with Oracle7.2, implements a binary wrapper for PL/SQL programs to protect the source code. This is done via a standalone utility that transforms the PL/SQL source code into portable binary object code (somewhat larger than the original). This way you can distribute software without having to worry about exposing your proprietary algorithms and methods. SQL*Plus and SQL*DBA will still understand and know how to execute such scripts. Just be careful, there is no “decode” command available.
The syntax is:
wrap iname=myscript.sql oname=xxxx.yyy


99.Can one use dynamic SQL within PL/SQL? OR Can you use a DDL in a procedure ? How ?

From PL/SQL V2.1 one can use the DBMS_SQL package to execute dynamic SQL statements.
cur integer;
rc integer;
rc := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(cur);


Oracel Interview Question Only (1)

  • What is Referential Integrity rule? Differentiate between
  • Delete & Truncate command.
  • Implicit Cursor & Explicit Cursor.
  • Ref. key & Foreign key.
  • Where & Having Clause.
  • What are various kinds of Integrity Constraints in Oracle?
  • What are various kind of joins?
  • What is Raise_Application_Error?
  • What are various kinds of exceptions in Oracle?
  • Normal Forms
  • What is meant by Scrollable cursor?
  • The use of HAVING , WHERE and GROUPBY in one SQL?
  • What is meant by SORTING and GROUPING?
  • What are the different types of OUTER JOINS?
  • Explain the UNION operation in SQL . What is meant by OUTER JOIN?
  • What is a Non- corelated subquery?
  • What is a corelated subquery?
  • What do you know about subqueries?
  • What is the theory behind the JOIN statement in DB2?
  • What are the different types of SQL?
  • How to drop the column in a table?
  • How to drop the index?
  • What are the different tablespaces in database?
  • What is the maximum number of triggers, can apply to a single table?
  • What is the output of SIGN function?
  • What are the more common pseudo-columns?
  • Other way to replace query result null value with a text?
  • What are PL/SQL Cursor Exceptions?
  • Any three PL/SQL Exceptions?
  • Any three PL/SQL Exceptions?
  • Which date function returns number value?
  • Display Odd/ Even number of records?
  • Display the number value in Words?
  • To view installed Oracle version information?
  • Find out nth highest salary from emp table?
  • Implicit Cursor attributes?
  • Explicit Cursor attributes?
  • Display the records between two range I know the nvl function only allows the same data type(ie. number or char or date Nvl(comm, 0)), if commission is null then the text Not Applicable want to display, instead of blank space. How do I write the query???
  • How do I display row number with records?
  • How do I eliminate the duplicate rows?
  • If a view on a single base table is manipulated will the changes be reflected on the base table?
  • If Yes – under what conditions?
  • Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted?
  • What are the advantages of VIEW?
  • What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence?
  • Is it possible to access the current value in a session before accessing next value?
  • How to access the current value and next value from a sequence?
  • What is a database link?
  • If unique key constraint on DATE column is created, will it validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE?
  • How will you activate/deactivate integrity constraints?
  • Where the integrity constraints are stored in data dictionary?
  • What are the pre-requisites to modify datatype of a column and to add a column with NOT NULL constraint?
  • Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY?
  • How many LONG columns are allowed in a table?
  • What is the maximum SIZE allowed for each type?
  • What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2?
  • What are the data types allowed in a table?
  • What is the usage of SAVEPOINTS?
  • What is referential integrity constraint?
  • What is an integrity constraint?
  • What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table?
  • What is ROWID?
  • Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?
  • What is correlated sub-query?
  • What is the sub-query?
  • Explain the different types of joins?
  • What is a join?
  • What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE?
  • What is a transaction?
  • What are the types of SQL statement?
  • Which datatype is used for storing graphics and images?
  • LONG RAW data type is used for storing BLOB’s (binary large objects).?
  • What is a pseudo column. Give some examples?
  • It is a column that is not an actual column in the table?
  • What are the differences you have seen while installing Oracle on NT and Unix platform?
  • What utility is used to create a logical backup? export

Oracel Interview Question Only (2)

  • What are the differences between database designing and database modeling?
  • If the large table contains thousands of records and the application is accessing 35% of the table which method to use: index searching or full table scan?
  • In which situation whether peak time or off peak time you will execute the ANALYZE TABLE command. Why?
  • How to check to memory gap once the SGA is started in Restricted mode?
  • All the users are complaining that their application is hanging. How you will resolve this situation in OLTP?
  • If the SQL * Plus hangs for a long time, what is the reason?
  • Shall we create procedures to fetch more than one record?
  • How do you increase the performance of %LIKE operator?
  • You are regularly changing the package body part. How will you create or what will you do before creating that package?
  • How can you see the source code of the package?
  • Dual table explain. Is any data internally storing in dual table. Lot of users are accessing select sysdate from dual and they getting some millisecond differences. If we execute SELECT SYSDATE FROM EMP; what error will we get. Why?
  • In exception handling we have some NOT_FOUND and OTHERS. In inner layer we have some NOT_FOUND and OTHERS. While executing which one whether outer layer or inner layer will check first?
  • What is mutated trigger, is it the problem of locks. In single user mode we got mutated error, as a DBA how you will resolve it?
  • Schema A has some objects and created one procedure and granted to Schema B. Schema B has the same objects like schema A. Schema B executed the procedure like inserting some records. In this case where the data will be stored whether in Schema A or Schema B?
  • What is bulk SQL?
  • How to do the scheduled task/jobs in Unix platform?
  • If the entire disk is corrupted how will you and what are the steps to recover the database?
  • How will you monitor rollback segment status?
  • List the sequence of events when a large transaction that exceeds beyond its optimal value when an entry wraps and causes the rollback segment to expand into another extend?
  • What is redo log file mirroring?
  • How can we plan storage for very large tables
  • When will be a segment released ?
  • What are disadvantages of having raw devices?
  • List the factors that can affect the accuracy of the estima?
  • What is the difference between $$DATE$$ & $$DBDATE$$$$DBDATE$$ retrieves the current database date$$date$$ retrieves the current operating system
  • How to prevent unauthorized use of privileges granted to a Role ?
  • What is a deadlock and Explain?
  • What are the basic element of base configuration of an Oracle database?
  • What is an index and How it is implemented in Oracle database?
  • What is the use of redo log information?
  • What is a schema?
  • What is Parallel Server?
  • What is a database instance and Explain?
  • What is a datafile?
  • What is a temporary segment?
  • What are the uses of rollback segment

PL/SQL Interview Questions and Answers

SQL is an English like language consisting of commands to store, retrieve, maintain & regulate access to your database.


SQL*PLUS is an application that recognizes & executes SQL commands & specialized SQL*Plus commands that can customize reports, provide help & edit facility & maintain system variables.


NVL : Null value function converts a null value to a non-null value for the purpose of evaluating an expression. Numeric Functions accept numeric I/P & return numeric values. They are MOD, SQRT, ROUND, TRUNC & POWER.


Date Functions


Character Functions
Character Functions are INITCAP, UPPER, LOWER, SUBSTR & LENGTH. Additional functions are GREATEST & LEAST. Group Functions returns results based upon groups of rows rather than one result per row, use group functions. They are AVG, COUNT, MAX, MIN & SUM.


TTITLE & BTITLE are commands to control report headings & footers.


COLUMN command define column headings & format data values.


BREAK command clarify reports by suppressing repeated values, skipping lines & allowing for controlled break points.


command control computations on subsets created by the BREAK command.


SET command changes the system variables affecting the report environment.


SPOOL command creates a print file of the report.


JOIN is the form of SELECT command that combines info from two or more tables.
Types of Joins are Simple (Equijoin & Non-Equijoin), Outer & Self join.
Equijoin returns rows from two or more tables joined together based upon a equality condition in the WHERE clause.
Non-Equijoin returns rows from two or more tables based upon a relationship other than the equality condition in the WHERE clause.
Outer Join combines two or more tables returning those rows from one table that have no direct match in the other table.
Self Join joins a table to itself as though it were two separate tables.


Union is the product of two or more tables.


Intersect is the product of two tables listing only the matching rows.


Minus is the product of two tables listing only the non-matching rows.


Correlated Subquery
Correlated Subquery is a subquery that is evaluated once for each row processed by the parent statement. Parent statement can be Select, Update or Delete. Use CRSQ to answer multipart questions whose answer depends on the value in each row processed by parent statement.


Multiple columns
Multiple columns can be returned from a Nested Subquery.


Sequences are used for generating sequence numbers without any overhead of locking. Drawback is that after generating a sequence number if the transaction is rolled back, then that sequence number is lost.


Synonyms is the alias name for table, views, sequences & procedures and are created for reasons of Security and Convenience.
Two levels are Public – created by DBA & accessible to all the users. Private – Accessible to creator only. Advantages are referencing without specifying the owner and Flexibility to customize a more meaningful naming convention.


Indexes are optional structures associated with tables used to speed query execution and/or guarantee uniqueness. Create an index if there are frequent retrieval of fewer than 10-15% of the rows in a large table and columns are referenced frequently in the WHERE clause. Implied tradeoff is query speed vs. update speed. Oracle automatically update indexes. Concatenated index max. is 16 columns.

Data types
Max. columns in a table is 255. Max. Char size is 255, Long is 64K & Number is 38 digits.
Cannot Query on a long column.
Char, Varchar2 Max. size is 2000 & default is 1 byte.
Number(p,s) p is precision range 1 to 38, s is scale -84 to 127.
Long Character data of variable length upto 2GB.
Date Range from Jan 4712 BC to Dec 4712 AD.
Raw Stores Binary data (Graphics Image & Digitized Sound). Max. is 255 bytes.
Mslabel Binary format of an OS label. Used primarily with Trusted Oracle.


Order of SQL statement execution
Where clause, Group By clause, Having clause, Order By clause & Select.


Transaction is defined as all changes made to the database between successive commits.


Commit is an event that attempts to make data in the database identical to the data in the form. It involves writing or posting data to the database and committing data to the database. Forms check the validity of the data in fields and records during a commit. Validity check are uniqueness, consistency and db restrictions.


Posting is an event that writes Inserts, Updates & Deletes in the forms to the database but not committing these transactions to the database.


Rollback causes work in the current transaction to be undone.


Savepoint is a point within a particular transaction to which you may rollback without rolling back the entire transaction.


Set Transaction
Set Transaction is to establish properties for the current transaction.


Locking are mechanisms intended to prevent destructive interaction between users accessing data. Locks are used to achieve.


Consistency : Assures users that the data they are changing or viewing is not changed until the are thro’ with it.


Assures database data and structures reflects all changes made to them in the correct sequence. Locks ensure data integrity and maximum concurrent access to data. Commit statement releases all locks. Types of locks are given below.
Data Locks protects data i.e. Table or Row lock.
Dictionary Locks protects the structure of database object i.e. ensures table’s structure does not change for the duration of the transaction.
Internal Locks & Latches protects the internal database structures. They are automatic.
Exclusive Lock allows queries on locked table but no other activity is allowed.
Share Lock allows concurrent queries but prohibits updates to the locked tables.
Row Share allows concurrent access to the locked table but prohibits for a exclusive table lock.
Row Exclusive same as Row Share but prohibits locking in shared mode.
Shared Row Exclusive locks the whole table and allows users to look at rows in the table but prohibit others from locking the table in share or updating them.
Share Update are synonymous with Row Share.


Deadlock is a unique situation in a multi user system that causes two or more users to wait indefinitely for a locked resource. First user needs a resource locked by the second user and the second user needs a resource locked by the first user. To avoid dead locks, avoid using exclusive table lock and if using, use it in the same sequence and use Commit frequently to release locks.


Mutating Table
Mutating Table is a table that is currently being modified by an Insert, Update or Delete statement. Constraining Table is a table that a triggering statement might need to read either directly for a SQL statement or indirectly for a declarative Referential Integrity constraints. Pseudo Columns behaves like a column in a table but are not actually stored in the table. E.g. Currval, Nextval, Rowid, Rownum, Level etc.


SQL*Loader is a product for moving data in external files into tables in an Oracle database. To load data from external files into an Oracle database, two types of input must be provided to SQL*Loader : the data itself and the control file. The control file describes the data to be loaded. It describes the Names and format of the data files, Specifications for loading data and the Data to be loaded (optional). Invoking the loader sqlload username/password controlfilename <options>.

1. The most important DDL statements in SQL are:

CREATE TABLE – creates a new database table
ALTER TABLE – alters (changes) a database table
DROP TABLE – deletes a database table

CREATE INDEX – creates an index (search key)

DROP INDEX – deletes an index


2. Operators used in SELECT statements.

= Equal
<> or != Not equal
> Greater than
< Less than
>= Greater than or equal
<= Less than or equal
BETWEEN Between an inclusive range
LIKE Search for a pattern


3. SELECT statements:

SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name
SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s) FROM table_name
SELECT column FROM table WHERE column operator value
SELECT column FROM table WHERE column LIKE pattern
SELECT column,SUM(column) FROM table GROUP BY column
SELECT column,SUM(column) FROM table GROUP BY column HAVING SUM(column) condition value
Note that single quotes around text values and numeric values should not be enclosed in quotes. Double quotes may be acceptable in some databases.


4. The SELECT INTO Statement is most often used to create backup copies of tables or for archiving records.

SELECT column_name(s) INTO newtable [IN externaldatabase] FROM source
SELECT column_name(s) INTO newtable [IN externaldatabase] FROM source WHERE column_name operator value


5. The INSERT INTO Statements:

INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1, value2,….)
INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2,…) VALUES (value1, value2,….)


6. The Update Statement:

UPDATE table_name SET column_name = new_value WHERE column_name = some_value

7. The Delete Statements:

DELETE FROM table_name WHERE column_name = some_value
Delete All Rows:
DELETE FROM table_name or DELETE * FROM table_name


8. Sort the Rows:

SELECT column1, column2, … FROM table_name ORDER BY columnX, columnY, ..
SELECT column1, column2, … FROM table_name ORDER BY columnX DESC
SELECT column1, column2, … FROM table_name ORDER BY columnX DESC, columnY ASC


9. The IN operator may be used if you know the exact value you want to return for at least one of the columns.

SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name IN (value1,value2,..)



SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name BETWEEN value1 AND value2 The values can be numbers, text, or dates.


11. What is the use of CASCADE CONSTRAINTS?

When this clause is used with the DROP command, a parent table can be dropped even when a child table exists.


12. Why does the following command give a compilation error?

DROP TABLE &TABLE_NAME; Variable names should start with an alphabet. Here the table name starts with an ‘&’ symbol.

13. Which system tables contain information on privileges granted and privileges obtained?



14. Which system table contains information on constraints on all the tables created?obtained?



15. What is the difference between TRUNCATE and DELETE commands?

< p TRUNCATE. with and DELETE used be can clause WHERE back. rolled cannot operation TRUNCATE but back, Hence command. DML is whereas command DDL>

16. State true or false. !=, <>, ^= all denote the same operation?



17. State true or false. EXISTS, SOME, ANY are operators in SQL?



18. What will be the output of the following query?


19. What does the following query do?

This displays the total salary of all employees. The null values in the commission column will be replaced by 0 and added to salary.


20. What is the advantage of specifying WITH GRANT OPTION in the GRANT command?

The privilege receiver can further grant the privileges he/she has obtained from the owner to any other user.


21. Which command executes the contents of a specified file?

START or @.


22. What is the value of comm and sal after executing the following query if the initial value of ‘sal’ is 10000

sal = 11000, comm = 1000.


23. Which command displays the SQL command in the SQL buffer, and then executes it?



24. What command is used to get back the privileges offered by the GRANT command?


25. What will be the output of the following query? SELECT DECODE(TRANSLATE(‘A’,’1234567890′,’1111111111′), ‘1’,’YES’, ‘NO’ );? NO.

Explanation : The query checks whether a given string is a numerical digit.


26. Which date function is used to find the difference between two dates?



27. What operator performs pattern matching?

LIKE operator.


28. What is the use of the DROP option in the ALTER TABLE command?

It is used to drop constraints specified on the table.


29. What operator tests column for the absence of data?

IS NULL operator.


30. What are the privileges that can be granted on a table by a user to others?

Insert, update, delete, select, references, index, execute, alter, all.

31. Which function is used to find the largest integer less than or equal to a specific value?



32. Which is the subset of SQL commands used to manipulate Oracle Database structures, including tables?

Data Definition Language (DDL).


33. What is the use of DESC in SQL?

DESC has two purposes. It is used to describe a schema as well as to retrieve rows from table in descending order.
Explanation :
The query SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME DESC will display the output sorted on ENAME in descending order.


34. What command is used to create a table by copying the structure of another table?

To copy only the structure, the WHERE clause of the SELECT command should contain a FALSE statement as in the following.
If the WHERE condition is true, then all the rows or rows satisfying the condition will be copied to the new table.


Will the outputs of the above two commands differ?

Both will result in deleting all the rows in the table EMP..

36. What is the output of the following query SELECT TRUNC(1234.5678,-2) FROM DUAL;?



37. What are the wildcards used for pattern matching.?

_ for single character substitution and % for multi-character substitution.


38. What is the parameter substitution symbol used with INSERT INTO command?



39. What’s an SQL injection?

SQL Injection is when form data contains an SQL escape sequence and injects a new SQL query to be run.

40. What is difference between TRUNCATE & DELETE

TRUNCATE commits after deleting entire table i.e., cannot be rolled back. Database triggers do not fire on TRUNCATE
DELETE allows the filtered deletion. Deleted records can be rolled back or committed. Database triggers fire on DELETE.


41. What is a join? Explain the different types of joins?

Join is a query, which retrieves related columns or rows from multiple tables.
Self Join – Joining the table with itself.
Equi Join – Joining two tables by equating two common columns.
Non-Equi Join – Joining two tables by equating two common columns.
Outer Join – Joining two tables in such a way that query can also retrieve rows that do not have corresponding join value in the other table.

42. What is the sub-query?

Sub-query is a query whose return values are used in filtering conditions of the main query.


43. What is correlated sub-query?

Correlated sub-query is a sub-query, which has reference to the main query.



Retrieves rows in hierarchical order eg.
select empno, ename from emp where.


45. Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR?

INSTR (String1, String2 (n, (m)),
INSTR returns the position of the m-th occurrence of the string 2 in string1. The search begins from nth position of string1.
SUBSTR (String1 n, m)
SUBSTR returns a character string of size m in string1, starting from n-th position of string1.



INTERSECT – returns all distinct rows selected by both queries. MINUS – returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second. UNION – returns all distinct rows selected by either query UNION ALL – returns all rows selected by either query, including all duplicates.


47. What is ROWID?

ROWID is a pseudo column attached to each row of a table. It is 18 characters long, blockno, rownumber are the components of ROWID.


48. What is the fastest way of accessing a row in a table?

Using ROWID.

49. What is an integrity constraint?

Integrity constraint is a rule that restricts values to a column in a table.


50. What is referential integrity constraint?

Maintaining data integrity through a set of rules that restrict the values of one or more columns of the tables based on the values of primary key or unique key of the referenced table.


51. What is the usage of SAVEPOINTS?

SAVEPOINTS are used to subdivide a transaction into smaller parts. It enables rolling back part of a transaction. Maximum of five save points are allowed.



When ON DELETE CASCADE is specified Oracle maintains referential integrity by automatically removing dependent foreign key values if a referenced primary or unique key value is removed.


53. What are the data types allowed in a table?



54. What is difference between CHAR and VARCHAR2? What is the maximum SIZE allowed for each type?

CHAR pads blank spaces to the maximum length.
VARCHAR2 does not pad blank spaces.
For CHAR the maximum length is 255 and 2000 for VARCHAR2.


55. How many LONG columns are allowed in a table? Is it possible to use LONG columns in WHERE clause or ORDER BY?

Only one LONG column is allowed. It is not possible to use LONG column in WHERE or ORDER BY clause.


56. What are the pre-requisites to modify datatype of a column and to add a column with NOT NULL constraint?

– To modify the datatype of a column the column must be empty.
– To add a column with NOT NULL constrain, the table must be empty.


57. Where the integrity constraints are stored in data dictionary?

The integrity constraints are stored in USER_CONSTRAINTS.


58. How will you activate/deactivate integrity constraints?

The integrity constraints can be enabled or disabled by ALTER TABLE ENABLE CONSTRAINT / DISABLE CONSTRAINT.

59. If unique key constraint on DATE column is created, will it validate the rows that are inserted with SYSDATE?

It won’t, Because SYSDATE format contains time attached with it.


60. What is a database link?

Database link is a named path through which a remote database can be accessed.


60. How to access the current value and next value from a sequence? Is it possible to access the current value in a session before accessing next value?

Sequence name CURRVAL, sequence name NEXTVAL. It is not possible. Only if you access next value in the session, current value can be accessed.


60.What is CYCLE/NO CYCLE in a Sequence?

CYCLE specifies that the sequence continue to generate values after reaching either maximum or minimum value. After pan-ascending sequence reaches its maximum value, it generates its minimum value. After a descending sequence reaches its minimum, it generates its maximum.
NO CYCLE specifies that the sequence cannot generate more values after reaching its maximum or minimum value.


61. What are the advantages of VIEW?

– To protect some of the columns of a table from other users.
– To hide complexity of a query.
– To hide complexity of calculations.


62. Can a view be updated/inserted/deleted? If Yes – under what conditions?

A View can be updated/deleted/inserted if it has only one base table if the view is based on columns from one or more tables then insert, update and delete is not possible.


63. If a view on a single base table is manipulated will the changes be reflected on the base table?

If changes are made to the tables and these tables are the base tables of a view, then the changes will be reference on the view.

64. Which of the following statements is true about implicit cursors?

1. Implicit cursors are used for SQL statements that are not named.
2. Developers should use implicit cursors with great care.
3. Implicit cursors are used in cursor for loops to handle data processing.
4. Implicit cursors are no longer a feature in Oracle.


65. Which of the following is not a feature of a cursor FOR loop?

1. Record type declaration.
2. Opening and parsing of SQL statements.
3. Fetches records from cursor.
4. Requires exit condition to be defined.


66. A developer would like to use referential datatype declaration on a variable. The variable name is EMPLOYEE_LASTNAME, and the corresponding table and column is EMPLOYEE, and LNAME, respectively. How would the developer define this variable using referential datatypes?

1. Use employee.lname%type.
2. Use employee.lname%rowtype.
3. Look up datatype for EMPLOYEE column on LASTNAME table and use that.
4. Declare it to be type LONG.


67. Which three of the following are implicit cursor attributes?

1. %found
2. %too_many_rows
3. %notfound
4. %rowcount
5. %rowtype


68. If left out, which of the following would cause an infinite loop to occur in a simple loop?


69. Which line in the following statement will produce an error?

1. cursor action_cursor is
2. select name, rate, action
3. into action_record
4. from action_table;
5. There are no errors in this statement.


70. The command used to open a CURSOR FOR loop is

1. open
2. fetch
3. parse
4. None, cursor for loops handle cursor opening implicitly.


71. What happens when rows are found using a FETCH statement

1. It causes the cursor to close
2. It causes the cursor to open
3. It loads the current row values into variables
4. It creates the variables to hold the current row values


72. Read the following code:
11. (v_movie_id {Argument Mode} NUMBER, v_cost_per_ticket {argument mode} NUMBER)
12. IS
14. IF v_cost_per_ticket > 8.5 THEN
15. SELECT cost_per_ticket
16. INTO v_cost_per_ticket
17. FROM gross_receipt
18. WHERE movie_id = v_movie_id;
19. END IF;
20. END;
Which mode should be used for V_COST_PER_TICKET?
1. IN
2. OUT

73. Read the following code:
22. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER update_show_gross
23. {trigger information}
25. {additional code}
26. END;

The trigger code should only execute when the column, COST_PER_TICKET, is greater than $3. Which trigger information will you add?

1. WHEN (new.cost_per_ticket > 3.75)
2. WHEN (:new.cost_per_ticket > 3.75
3. WHERE (new.cost_per_ticket > 3.75)
4. WHERE (:new.cost_per_ticket > 3.75)


74. What is the maximum number of handlers processed before the PL/SQL block is exited when an exception occurs?

1. Only one
2. All that apply
3. All referenced
4. None


77. For which trigger timing can you reference the NEW and OLD qualifiers?

1. Statement and Row 2. Statement only 3. Row only 4. Oracle Forms trigger


78. Read the following code:
RETURN number IS

v_yearly_budget NUMBER;

SELECT yearly_budget
INTO v_yearly_budget
FROM studio
WHERE id = v_studio_id;

RETURN v_yearly_budget;
Which set of statements will successfully invoke this function within SQL*Plus?
1. VARIABLE g_yearly_budget NUMBER
EXECUTE g_yearly_budget := GET_BUDGET(11);
2. VARIABLE g_yearly_budget NUMBER
EXECUTE :g_yearly_budget := GET_BUDGET(11);
3. VARIABLE :g_yearly_budget NUMBER
EXECUTE :g_yearly_budget := GET_BUDGET(11);
4. VARIABLE g_yearly_budget NUMBER

32. (v_name IN VARCHAR v_theater_id IN NUMBER) IS
34. UPDATE theater
35. SET name = v_name
36. WHERE id = v_theater_id;
37. END update_theater;

79. When invoking this procedure, you encounter the error:
ORA-000: Unique constraint(SCOTT.THEATER_NAME_UK) violated.
How should you modify the function to handle this error?
1. An user defined exception must be declared and associated with the error code and handled in the EXCEPTION section.
2. Handle the error in EXCEPTION section by referencing the error code directly.
3. Handle the error in the EXCEPTION section by referencing the UNIQUE_ERROR predefined exception.
4. Check for success by checking the value of SQL%FOUND immediately after the UPDATE statement.


80. Read the following code:
41. v_budget studio.yearly_budget%TYPE;
43. v_budget := get_budget(11);
44. IF v_budget < 30000
45. THEN
46. set_budget(11,30000000);
47. END IF;
48. END;

You are about to add an argument to CALCULATE_BUDGET. What effect will this have?
1. The GET_BUDGET function will be marked invalid and must be recompiled before the next execution.
2. The SET_BUDGET function will be marked invalid and must be recompiled before the next execution.
3. Only the CALCULATE_BUDGET procedure needs to be recompiled.
4. All three procedures are marked invalid and must be recompiled.


81. Which procedure can be used to create a customized error message?


82. The CHECK_THEATER trigger of the THEATER table has been disabled. Which command can you issue to enable this trigger?
1. ALTER TRIGGER check_theater ENABLE;
2. ENABLE TRIGGER check_theater;
3. ALTER TABLE check_theater ENABLE check_theater;
4. ENABLE check_theater;


83. Examine this database trigger
52. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER prevent_gross_modification
53. {additional trigger information}
55. IF TO_CHAR(sysdate, DY) = MON
56. THEN
57. RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR(-20000,Gross receipts cannot be deleted on Monday);
58. END IF;
59. END;

This trigger must fire before each DELETE of the GROSS_RECEIPT table. It should fire only once for the entire DELETE statement. What additional information must you add?
1. BEFORE DELETE ON gross_receipt
2. AFTER DELETE ON gross_receipt
3. BEFORE (gross_receipt DELETE)
4. FOR EACH ROW DELETED FROM gross_receipt

84. Examine this function:
62. (v_studio_id IN NUMBER, v_new_budget IN NUMBER) IS
64. UPDATE studio
65. SET yearly_budget = v_new_budget
WHERE id = v_studio_id;



Which code must be added to successfully compile this function?
1. Add RETURN right before the IS keyword.
2. Add RETURN number right before the IS keyword.
3. Add RETURN boolean right after the IS keyword.
4. Add RETURN boolean right before the IS keyword.


85. Under which circumstance must you recompile the package body after recompiling the package specification?
1. Altering the argument list of one of the package constructs
2. Any change made to one of the package constructs
3. Any SQL statement change made to one of the package constructs
4. Removing a local variable from the DECLARE section of one of the package constructs


86. Procedure and Functions are explicitly executed. This is different from a database trigger. When is a database trigger executed?
1. When the transaction is committed
2. During the data manipulation statement
3. When an Oracle supplied package references the trigger
4. During a data manipulation statement and when the transaction is committed


87. Which Oracle supplied package can you use to output values and messages from database triggers, stored procedures and functions within SQL*Plus?


88. What occurs if a procedure or function terminates with failure without being handled?
1. Any DML statements issued by the construct are still pending and can be committed or rolled back.
2. Any DML statements issued by the construct are committed
3. Unless a GOTO statement is used to continue processing within the BEGIN section, the construct terminates.
4. The construct rolls back any DML statements issued and returns the unhandled exception to the calling environment.

89. Examine this code
72. theater_pck.v_total_seats_sold_overall := theater_pck.get_total_for_year;
73. END;

For this code to be successful, what must be true?
1. Both the V_TOTAL_SEATS_SOLD_OVERALL variable and the GET_TOTAL_FOR_YEAR function must exist only in the body of the THEATER_PCK package.
2. Only the GET_TOTAL_FOR_YEAR variable must exist in the specification of the THEATER_PCK package.
3. Only the V_TOTAL_SEATS_SOLD_OVERALL variable must exist in the specification of the THEATER_PCK package.
4. Both the V_TOTAL_SEATS_SOLD_OVERALL variable and the GET_TOTAL_FOR_YEAR function must exist in the specification of the THEATER_PCK package.


90 A stored function must return a value based on conditions that are determined at runtime. Therefore, the SELECT statement cannot be hard-coded and must be created dynamically when the function is executed. Which Oracle supplied package will enable this feature?



90 A stored function must return a value based on conditions that are determined at runtime. Therefore, the SELECT statement cannot be hard-coded and must be created dynamically when the function is executed. Which Oracle supplied package will enable this feature?



91 How to implement ISNUMERIC function in SQL *Plus ?

Method 1:

Select length (translate (trim (column_name),’ +-.0123456789′,’ ‘)) from dual ;

Will give you a zero if it is a number or greater than zero if not numeric (actually gives the count of non numeric characters)

Method 2:

select instr(translate(‘wwww’,
FROM dual;

It returns 0 if it is a number, 1 if it is not.

92 How to Select last N records from a Table?

select * from (select rownum a, CLASS_CODE,CLASS_DESC from clm)
where a > ( select (max(rownum)-10) from clm)

Here N = 10

The following query has a Problem of performance in the execution of the following query where the table ter.ter_master have 22231 records. So the results are obtained after hours.

Cursor rem_master(brepno VARCHAR2) IS
select a.* from ter.ter_master a
where NOT a.repno in (select repno from ermast) and
(brepno = ‘ALL’ or a.repno > brepno)
Order by a.repno

What are steps required tuning this query to improve its performance?

-Have an index on TER_MASTER.REPNO and one on ERMAST.REPNO

-Be sure to get familiar with EXPLAIN PLAN. This can help you determine the execution path that Oracle takes. If you are using Cost Based Optimizer mode, then be sure that your statistics on TER_MASTER are up-to-date. -Also, you can change your SQL to:

FROM ter.ter_master a
WHERE a.repno=b.repno) AND
(a.brepno = ‘ALL’ or a.repno > a.brepno)
ORDER BY a.repno;


93 What is the difference between Truncate and Delete interms of Referential Integrity?

DELETE removes one or more records in a table, checking referential Constraints (to see if there are dependent child records) and firing any DELETE triggers. In the order you are deleting (child first then parent) There will be no problems.
TRUNCATE removes ALL records in a table. It does not execute any triggers. Also, it only checks for the existence (and status) of another foreign key Pointing to the table. If one exists and is enabled, then you will get The following error. This is true even if you do the child tables first.
ORA-02266: unique/primary keys in table referenced by enabled foreign keys
You should disable the foreign key constraints in the child tables before issuing the TRUNCATE command, then re-enable them afterwards.



94. What does preemptive in preemptive multitasking mean ?

Preemptive refers to the fact that each task is alloted fixed time slots and at the end of that time slot the next task is started.


95. What does the OLTP stands for ?

OLTP stands for On Line Transaction Processing


96. What is the most important requirement for OLTP ?

OLTP requires real time response.


97. In a client server environment, what would be the major work that the client deals with ?

The client deals with the user interface part of the system.


98. Why is the most of the processing done at the sever ?

To reduce the network traffic and for application sharing and implementing business rules.


99. What does teh term upsizing refer to ?

Applications that have outgrown their environment are re-engineered to run in a larger environment. This is upsizing.


100. What does one do when one is rightsizing ?

With rightsizing, one would move applications to the most appropriate server platforms.


101. What does the term downsizing refer to ?

A host based application is re-engineered to run in smaller or LAN based environment.


102. What is event trigger ?

An event trigger, a segment of code which is associated with each event and is fired when the event occurs.


103. Why do stored procedures reduce network traffic ?

When a stored procedure is called, only the procedure call is sent to the server and not the statements that the procedure contains.

104. What are the types of processes that a server runs ?

Foreground process and Background process.


105. What is a event handler ?

An event handler is a routine that is written to respond to a particular event.


106. What is an integrity constraint ?

An integrity constraint allows the definition of certain restrictions, at the table level, on the data that is entered into a table.


107. What are the various uses of database triggers ?

Database triggers can be used to enforce business rules, to maintain derived values and perform value-based auditing.


108. What is a transaction ?

A transaction is a set of operations that begin when the first DML is issued and end when a commit or rollback is issued. BEGIN COMMIT/ROLLBACK are the boundries of a transaction.


109. Why are the integrity constraints preferred to database triggers ?

Because it is easier to define an integrity constraint than a database trigger.


110. Why is it better to use an integrity constraint to validate data in a table than to use a stored procedure ?

Because an integrity constraint is automatically checked while data is inserted into a table. A stored has to be specifically invoked.


111. What are the three components of a client server model ?

A Client,
A Server and
A Network/Communication software.


112. What are the advantages of client/server model ?

Flexibility of the system, scalability, cost saving, centralised control and implementation of business rules, increase of developers productivity, portability, improved network and resource utilization.


113. What are the disadvantages of the client/server model ?

Heterogeneity of the system results in reduced reliablity. May not be suitable for all applications. Managing and tuning networks becomes difficult.


114. What are the different topologies available for network ?



115. What is the first work of Client process ?

A client process at first establishes connection with the Server.

115. What are the responsibilities of a Server ?

1. Manage resources optimally across multiple clients.
2. Controlling database access and security.
3. Protecting the databse and recovering it from crashes.
4. Enforcing integrity rules globally.


116. In a Client/Server context, what does API (Application Programming Interface) refer to ?

An API, in a Client/Server context, is a specification of a set of functions for communication between the client and the server.


117. Give some examples of standard API??s ?

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC),
Integrated Database Application Programming Interface (IDAPI),


118. What is the main advantage of developing an application using an API ?

The application can be connected to any back end server that is supported by the API.


119. What is the main disadvantage of developing an application using an API ?

The application cannot use any special features of the backend server.


120. Why is an event driven program referred to a passive program ?

Because an event driven program is always waiting for something to happen before processing.


120. What are the four types of events ?

1. System Events.
2. Control Events
3. User Events
4. Other Events.


121. What is the difference between file server and a database server ?

A file server just transfers all the data requested by all its client and the client processes the data while a database server runs the query and sends only the query output.


122. What is inheritance ?

Inheritance is a method by which properties and methods of an existing object are automatically passed to any object derived from it.


123. What are the two components of ODBC ?

1. An ODBC manager/administrator and
2. ODBC driver.

124. What is the function of a ODBC manager ?

The ODBC Manager manages all the data sources that exists in the system.


125. What is the function of a ODBC Driver ?

The ODBC Driver allows the developer to talk to the back end database.


126. What description of a data source is required for ODBC ?

The name of the DBMS, the location of the source and the database dependent information.


127. How is a connection establised by ODBC ?

ODBC uses the description of the datasource available in the ODBC.INI file to load the required drivers to access that particular back end database.


PL/SQL Questions:


1. Describe the difference between a procedure, function and anonymous pl/sql block.
Candidate should mention use of DECLARE statement, a function must return a value while a procedure doesn?t have to.

2. What is a mutating table error and how can you get around it?
This happens with triggers. It occurs because the trigger is trying to update a row it is currently using. The usual fix involves either use of views or temporary tables so the database is selecting from one while updating the other.

3. Describe the use of %ROWTYPE and %TYPE in PL/SQL
%ROWTYPE allows you to associate a variable with an entire table row. The %TYPE associates a variable with a single column type.

4. What packages (if any) has Oracle provided for use by developers?: Oracle provides the DBMS_ series of packages.

There are many which developers should be aware of such as DBMS_SQL, DBMS_PIPE, DBMS_TRANSACTION, DBMS_LOCK, DBMS_ALERT, DBMS_OUTPUT, DBMS_JOB, DBMS_UTILITY, DBMS_DDL, UTL_FILE. If they can mention a few of these and describe how they used them, even better. If they include the SQL routines provided by Oracle, great, but not really what was asked.

5. Describe the use of PL/SQL tables
PL/SQL tables are scalar arrays that can be referenced by a binary integer. They can be used to hold values for use in later queries or calculations. In Oracle 8 they will be able to be of the %ROWTYPE designation, or RECORD.

6. When is a declare statement needed ?
The DECLARE statement is used in PL/SQL anonymous blocks such as with stand alone, non-stored PL/SQL procedures. It must come first in a PL/SQL stand alone file if it is used.

7. In what order should a open/fetch/loop set of commands in a PL/SQL block be implemented if you use the %NOTFOUND cursor variable in the exit when statement? Why?
OPEN then FETCH then LOOP followed by the exit when. If not specified in this order will result in the final return being done twice because of the way the %NOTFOUND is handled by PL/SQL.

8. What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers?
SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last error encountered. The SQLERRM returns the actual error message for the last error encountered. They can be used in exception handling to report, or, store in an error log table, the error that occurred in the code. These are especially useful for the WHEN OTHERS exception.

9. How can you find within a PL/SQL block, if a cursor is open?
Use the %ISOPEN cursor status variable.

10. How can you generate debugging output from PL/SQL?
Expected answer: Use the DBMS_OUTPUT package. Another possible method is to just use the SHOW ERROR command, but this only shows errors. The DBMS_OUTPUT package can be used to show intermediate results from loops and the status of variables as the procedure is executed. The new package UTL_FILE can also be used.

11. What are the types of triggers?
There are 12 types of triggers in PL/SQL that consist of combinations of the BEFORE, AFTER, ROW, TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and ALL key words:



1. How can variables be passed to a SQL routine?
By use of the & symbol. For passing in variables the numbers 1-8 can be used (&1, &2,…,&8) to pass the values after the command into the SQLPLUS session. To be prompted for a specific variable, place the ampersanded variable in the code itself:
“select * from dba_tables where owner=&owner_name;” . Use of double ampersands tells SQLPLUS to resubstitute the value for each subsequent use of the variable, a single ampersand will cause a reprompt for the value unless an ACCEPT statement is used to get the value from the user.
2. You want to include a carriage return/linefeed in your output from a SQL script, how can you do this?
The best method is to use the CHR() function (CHR(10) is a return/linefeed) and the concatenation function “||”. Another method, although it is hard to document and isn?t always portable is to use the return/linefeed as a part of a quoted string.
3. How can you call a PL/SQL procedure from SQL?
By use of the EXECUTE (short form EXEC) command.
4. How do you execute a host operating system command from within SQL?
By use of the exclamation point “!” (in UNIX and some other OS) or the HOST (HO) command.
5. You want to use SQL to build SQL, what is this called and give an example
This is called dynamic SQL. An example would be:
set lines 90 pages 0 termout off feedback off verify off
spool drop_all.sql
select ?drop user ?||username||? cascade;? from dba_users
where username not in (“SYS?,?SYSTEM?);
spool off
Essentially you are looking to see that they know to include a command (in this case DROP USER…CASCADE;) and that you need to concatenate using the ?||? the values selected from the database.

6. What SQLPlus command is used to format output from a select?
This is best done with the COLUMN command.

7. You want to group the following set of select returns, what can you group on?
Max(sum_of_cost), min(sum_of_cost), count(item_no), item_no
The only column that can be grouped on is the “item_no” column, the rest have aggregate functions associated with them.

8. What special Oracle feature allows you to specify how the cost based system treats a SQL statement?
The COST based system allows the use of HINTs to control the optimizer path selection. If they can give some example hints such as FIRST ROWS, ALL ROWS, USING INDEX, STAR, even better.

9. You want to determine the location of identical rows in a table before attempting to place a unique index on the table, how can this be done?
Oracle tables always have one guaranteed unique column, the rowid column. If you use a min/max function against your rowid and then select against the proposed primary key you can squeeze out the rowids of the duplicate rows pretty quick. For example:
select rowid from emp e
where e.rowid > (select min(x.rowid)
from emp x
where x.emp_no = e.emp_no);
In the situation where multiple columns make up the proposed key, they must all be used in the where clause.

10. What is a Cartesian product?
A Cartesian product is the result of an unrestricted join of two or more tables. The result set of a three table Cartesian product will have x * y * z number of rows where x, y, z correspond to the number of rows in each table involved in the join.

11. You are joining a local and a remote table, the network manager complains about the traffic involved, how can you reduce the network traffic?
Push the processing of the remote data to the remote instance by using a view to pre-select the information for the join. This will result in only the data required for the join being sent across.

12. What is the default ordering of an ORDER BY clause in a SELECT statement?
13. What is tkprof and how is it used?
The tkprof tool is a tuning tool used to determine cpu and execution times for SQL statements. You use it by first setting timed_statistics to true in the initialization file and then turning on tracing for either the entire database via the sql_trace parameter or for the session using the ALTER SESSION command. Once the trace file is generated you run the tkprof tool against the trace file and then look at the output from the tkprof tool. This can also be used to generate explain plan output.
14. What is explain plan and how is it used?
The EXPLAIN PLAN command is a tool to tune SQL statements. To use it you must have an explain_table generated in the user you are running the explain plan for. This is created using the utlxplan.sql script. Once the explain plan table exists you run the explain plan command giving as its argument the SQL statement to be explained. The explain_plan table is then queried to see the execution plan of the statement. Explain plans can also be run using tkprof.
15. How do you set the number of lines on a page of output? The width?
The SET command in SQLPLUS is used to control the number of lines generated per page and the width of those lines, for example SET PAGESIZE 60 LINESIZE 80 will generate reports that are 60 lines long with a line width of 80 characters. The PAGESIZE and LINESIZE options can be shortened to PAGES and LINES.
16. How do you prevent output from coming to the screen?
The SET option TERMOUT controls output to the screen. Setting TERMOUT OFF turns off screen output. This option can be shortened to TERM.
17. How do you prevent Oracle from giving you informational messages during and after a SQL statement execution?

The SET options FEEDBACK and VERIFY can be set to OFF.
18. How do you generate file output from SQL?

Expected answer: By use of the SPOOL command

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Posted by on December 23, 2012 in Recruitment


Job Identification

Determining staffing needs is an ongoing process as staffs resign or retire. At this stage planning of present and future staffing needs are considered. This stage is called Human Resource Planning.

1. Start by defining employee roles

Setting KRA’s for every employee in your organisation:

  • Will make it easier to decide what is the workflow
  • Will help you to Understand what you expect your employee to be able to do and what they will get out of the position
  • Will help you analyse and evaluate the employee
  • Will give you an evenly distributed understanding of Job Responsibilities of a particular Department.
  • Will help you to analyse the gap between jobs, where you will identify the Job Requirement.

2. Start by identifying:

  • The number of employees needed
  • The role of each employee
  • The skills, knowledge, attitudes and aptitudes needed for each position
  • The opportunities and benefits a employee will get through the assignment

3. The next step is Job Analysis or specifying human resources needs.

  • The job analysis is an outline of the duties or tasks that an employee will be expected to perform. The job analysis will consist of 2 parts: Job description and job specification.
  • The job description outlines the employee’s duties, tasks and responsibilities.
  • The job specification is a list of the key qualifications needed to perform a particular job in terms of education, skills and experience.

4. Employer’s respond to the recruitment need which they identified depending on various factors, such as:

  • level of urgency;
  • the available budget;
  • the profile sought.
  • ROI

5. The employer will then decide whether to initiate an internal selection procedure or to recruit externally.

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Posted by on December 17, 2012 in Recruitment